Most airlines go all out to ensure their passengers have the best possible flight experience. Now, Europe’s low-budget airline, easyJet, wants to extend the positive experience beyond the plane ride with “Sneakairs” 一 smart shoes that allow visitors to explore new cities and towns without ever looking at a map.
To transform Sneakairs from an ordinary shoe to a tour guide，all the wearer has to do is enter his or her desired destination into the easyet smartphone app. A built-in GPS will determine the wearer? s starting location while the Google Maps navigation (导航）tool will help chart the best route. Whenever a change of direction is necessary, the app will communicate with die appropriate shoe via the Bluetooth and cause it to vibrate(振动）.For example f if the wearer needs to turn right, he/she will feel the sensation in the right shoe. Should the user miss the turn, the smart shoes will both vibrate at the same time, reminding him/her to change course.
Visitors that wander off the suggested path or decide to take a break for a cup of coffee or a meal have nothing to worry about. The smart app will automatically determine the new location and chart out a new route. Once the desired destination is reached, Sneakairs will vibrate three times to inform the user of the arrival and then go back to being ordinary shoes—until their navigation services are needed again!
Sneakairs is certainly not the first navigation shoe in the market. However, easyJet is the first airline to offer them to passengers just as they are about to land in an unknown city. However, before Sneakairs can go mainstream, the easyJet team still needs to make some adjustments. Among the challenges that need to be addressed is the smart shoe’s three-hour battery life, which is hardly enough for a tourist to catch all the delights a new city or town has To offer!
33. What can we learn about Sneakairs in the text?
A. Its size. B. Its price. C. Its material. D. Its function,
34. What does the author mainly talk about in Paragraph 2?
A. How Sneakairs works.
B. How visitors choose routes.
C. How users avoid getting lost.
D. What users should pay attention to.
33. What might easy Jet do to improve its smart shoes?
A. Bring down their cost. B. Add more functions.
C. Develop more types. D. Make the battery last longer.
After the examination, the doctor told my parents my sight would get worse and that I would lose my sight finally. On the way home from hospital, no one said a word. One day, would I only imagine the scenery beyond the glass rather than see it?
That September, I entered middle school. Most nights I had homework that included an armful of books to read. To keep up with other children, I took great trouble to finish the task. With my nose a couple of inches from the page, I was tired easily. What’s worse, after I had read several pages on my own, the words slipped off the page into inky pools.
However, then I did not have audio books and electronic devices like kids do now. Instead, Mom volunteered to read out loud. Mom worked part-time, cleaned the house, cooked and spent time with Grandma. In spite of being so busy, she showed up in my room like clockwork. She put on her reading glasses. Mom always thought those glasses made her look old. To me, she looked like a teacher.
In my room, Mom’s voice raced with the ticking of the clock. Being forced to focus on listening, I found a way to keep my marks up and compete with the other kids. When the teacher asked a question, I raised my hand with confidence. Teachers praised me for having a good memory. Reading removed my fear for my failing sight, reading also made me curious about other people’s challenges and how they managed. Though I could not use my eyes to fix on each passage, my mind lit up with every new book.
True to what the doctor said, the worst came, but thanks to Mom, my sense of hearing now allows me to “see”. This was the most precious gift from a mother to her child.
【小题1】Why did the author and his parents keep silent on their way back home from hospital?
A. They all wanted to have a good rest.
B. The author didn’t do well in the exam.
C. What the doctor said made them worried.
D. They focused on the scenery along the road.
【小题2】How did the author manage to get high marks?
A. By being confident.
B. By listening carefully.
C. By getting help from his classmates.
D. By reading as many books as possible.
【小题3】We can learn from the text that ____________.
A. the author’s sight recovered finally
B. reading made the author more sensitive
C. the author’s mother didn’t work to look after him
D. reading made the author not worry about his sight
【小题4】 Which of the following could be the best title of the text?
A. My eyesight trouble
B. An unforgettable experience
C. With ears wide open
D. About Mother’s love
The baobab tree grows in West Africa and Australia. It is a very strange-looking tree. Its huge trunk(树干) sometimes measure as much as ten metres in diameter (直径). It is thicker at the bottom than at the top. The branches nearest to the ground are very long; those near the top are very short. Strange-looking it may be, it is very useful. Its leaves are good to eat. Its white flowers turn into cool fruit which tastes rather like cucumber. When a baobab tree gets old, its trunk becomes hollow(空心). An old tree has such a huge, hollow trunk that it can hold many people. When it rains, water collects in the hollow. The tree has such a lot of leaves and branches that the water remains cool and fresh. It is such a useful tree that some people can hardly live without it.
25. The trunk of the biggest baobab tree ________ in girth (周长)。
A. can be nearly 32 metres
B. is more than 10 metres
C. is less than 30 metres
D. is as much as 10 metres
26. Which of the following do you think the baobab tree is like?
27. Which of the following may be true?
A. We can find the baobab tree everywhere in Africa.
B. The baobab tree is too big for anybody to make use of.
C. People in Africa and Australia like a plant baobab trees around their houses.
D. Monkeys like to eat the fruit of the baobab tree very much.
Paying a higher price than usual for a ticket to see a film in 3D is the annoyance of many a cinema-goer’s life.
But there may be a benefit to doing so, as a study has found that 3D films exercise the brain and improve short-term functioning in a similar way to brain-training tests.
The research found that people who watched a movie in 3D improved cognitive (认知) skills, compared to those who watched it in 2D.
The research was led by neuroscientist(神经学家) Dr Patrick Fagan from Goldsmiths University in London. More than 100 people took part in the experiment, where participants watched Disney film Big Hero 6 in either standard format or RealD 3D.
They also carried out a brain-training-style test before and after seeing a section from the film. The test covered memory, reaction times and cognitive function and the results were compared later.
According to the research, which was carried out in partnership with science group Thrill Laboratory, participants experienced a 23 percent increase in cognitive processing, as well as an 11 percent increase in reaction times.
Dr Fagan said that the results showed enough of an improvement in brain function to suggest that 3D could play a part in improving brain power in the future.
“These findings are more significant than you might think,” he said. “It is a fact that people are living longer and there is a noticeable decline in cognitive brain function in old age which can worsen future quality of life. There has never been a better time to look at ways to improve brain function. The initial results of this study show that 3D films may potentially play a role in slowing this decline.”
A second part of the experiment involved those watching the film being fitted with headsets that scanned brain activity and this too showed heightened (加强的) activity when watching 3D. According to the results, participants were seven percent more engaged with what they were watching, adding to argument that 3D movies are more like watching real-life--- something Professor Brendan Walker from Thrill Laboratory agreed with.
“As Professor Brendan Walker’s test concluded, 3D films are more attractive and heighten the senses--- this, in turn, makes the brain run at quicker speeds,” Dr Fagan said.
9. According to the research, people watching a movie in 3D ________.
A. have a good exercise for their brain
B. lose their short memory of its plots
C. are willing to pay a high price for tickets
D. react the same way as those watching it in 2D
10. What can be learned from the research?
A. Watching 2D films limits brain function.
B. 3D would be a contributing factor in improving brain power.
C. The test was carried out after the whole film was viewed.
D. The participants took the brain-training-style test once.
11. Paragraph 8 is mainly about________.
A . the application of 3D. B. the disadvantages of 2D films.
C. the change in brain function. D. the significance of the study.
12 .The text is most likely to appear in ________.
A. a sports newspaper B. a biology textbook
C. a science magazine D. a film review
A new phone app uses vibrations(振动) from smart phones to alert people about earthquakes. The phone app recognizes sudden shaking of the earth’s surface through sensors in smart phones. The new app is called MyShake. It is the work of four researchers at the University of California, Berkeley. They said they created a worldwide warning system that would inform people and give them time to prepare.
Smart phones are equipped with accelerometers. They measure acceleration movement of earth. Like that of a car of airplane. They can also measure the shaking of a machine, building or other structure. Accelerometers are used in activity trackers and apps that count steps or other exercise. They also are used in global positioning system apps, also called GPS.
MyShake uses phone accelerometers to measure seismic(地震的) activity. It has been programmed to know the difference between normal activity and earthquake movement. The software developers say their app right 93 percent of the time.
A smart phone sends seismic information to the app developers. If the developers receive several notifications from one area, it recognizes that an earthquake may be taking place or will take place soon. Using information sent from the app, the network then estimates the location and strength of the quake in real time. MyShake can record magnitude(震级) 5.0 earthquakes at distances of 10 kilometers of less. MyShake uses very little power, according to its developers. Only when seismic activity is sensed by the app does it become active and sends data to the network.
MyShake can add to information collected by the U.S Geological Survey. That U.S agency has created the Earthquake Early Warning System, also known as the EEW. The EEW has deployed(安置) sensors for measuring quakes in many areas . In places where no such equipment exists, MyShake may be the only method of early quake detection. “Our goal is to build a worldwide seismic network and use the data to reduce the effects of earthquakes on us as individuals and on society as a whole,” say the researchers. The developers say they hope to add a feature that would warn people about a possible tsunami, or the huge waves after an earthquake.
33. Which of the following is a function of accelerometers?
A. Positioning the location of a car of airplane.
B. Measuring speedup movement of earth.
C. Keeping track of smart phones.
D. Creating a worldwide warning system.
34. According to the text, MyShake can .
A. add to information collected by the U.S. Geological Survey
B. record magnitude 5.0 earthquakes at distances of 10 km or more
C. be the only method of early quake detection
D. use phone accelerometers to prevent seismic activity
35. What does the passage mainly talk about?
A. An instrument to warn people about tsunami.
B. A smart phone to measure the movement of earth.
C. A phone app to warn people about earthquakes.
D. A phone app to reduce the effects of earthquakes.
Psychology has a new application in the field of medicine. Many doctors, together with their patients, are looking for alternative methods of treatment of physical problems. In large hospitals, modern therapy seems to focus on the physical disease. Patients may feel they are treated like broken machines. Some doctors have recognized this as a problem. They are now using psychological therapy, in which the patient is working with the doctors against the disease with the help of medicine. The patient does not wait for the medicine and treatment to cure him or her, but instead the patient joins in the fight.
The doctor knows that a disease affects a patient's body physically. The body of the patient changes because of the disease. He is not only physically affected, but also has an emotional response to the disease. Because his mind is affected, his attitude and behavior change. The medical treatment might cure the patient's physical problems, but the patient's mind must fight the emotional ones. For example, the studies of one doctor, Carl Simonton, M. D., have shown that a typical cancer patient has predictable attitudes. She typically feels depressed, upset, and angry. Her constant depression makes her acts unfriendly toward her family, friends, doctors, and nurses. Such attitudes and behaviors prevent recovery. Therefore, a doctor's treatment must help the patient change that. Simonton's method emphasizes treatment of the “whole” patient.
The attitude of a cancer patient receiving radiation therapy, an X-ray treatment, can become more positive. The physician who is following Simonton's psychological treatment plan suggests that the patient imagine that he or she can see the tumor in the body. In the mental picture, the patient "sees" a powerful beam of radiation like a million bullets of energy. The patient imagines the beam hitting the tumor cells and causing them to shrink. For another cancer patient, Dr. Simonton asks him to imagine the medicine going from the stomach into the bloodstream and to the cancer cells. The patient imagines that the medicine is like an army fighting the diseased cells and sees the cancer cells gradually dying and his blood carry away the dead cells. Both the medical therapy and the patient's positive attitude fight the disease.
Doctors are not certain why this mental therapy works. However, this use of psychology does help some patients because their attitudes about themselves change. They become more confident because they use the power within their own minds to help stop the disease.
Another application of using the mind to help cure disease is the use of suggestion therapy. At first, the doctor helps the patient to concentrate deeply. The patient thinks only about one thing. He becomes so unaware of other things around him that he is asleep, or rather in a trance（催眠状态）. Then the physician makes “a suggestion” to the patient about the medical problem. The patient's mind responds to the suggestion even after the patient is no longer in the trance. In this way, the patient uses his mind to help his body respond to treatment.
Doctors have learned that this use of psychology is helpful for both adults and children. For example, physicians have used suggestion to help adults deal with the strong pain of some disease. Furthermore, sometimes the adult patient worries about her illness so much that the anxiety keeps her from getting well. The right suggestions may help the patient to stop being anxious. Such treatment may help the patient with a chronic（慢性的）diseases. Asthma （哮喘） is an example of a chronic disorder. Asthma is a disease that causes the patient to have difficulty in breathing. The patient starts to cough and sometimes has to fight to get the air that he or she needs. Psychology can help relieve the symptoms of this disorder. After suggestion therapy, the asthma patient breathes more easily.
Physicians have learned that the psychological method is very useful in treating children. Children respond quickly to the treatment because they are fascinated by it. For example, Dr. Basil R. Collison has worked with 121 asthmatic children in Sydney, Australia, and had good results. Twenty-five of the children had excellent results. They were able to breathe more easily, and they did not need medication. Another forty-three were also helped. The symptoms of the asthma occurred less frequently, and when they did, they were not as strong. Most of the children also felt better about themselves. Doctors have also used suggestion to change habits like nail-biting, thumb-sucking, and sleep-related problems.
Many professional medical groups have accepted the medical use of psychology and that psychology has important applications in medicine.
65. What does the passage mainly discuss?
A. How suggestion therapy benefits adults and children.
B. How modern therapy focuses on the disease.
C. Responses from the medical world. D. How to use the mind against disease.
66. How does psychological therapy work?
A. The patient waits for the medicine and treatment to cure him.
B. The doctor uses medical treatment to cure the patient's problems.
C. The doctor, the medicine, and the patient work together to fight disease.
D. The patient uses his mind to cure himself.
67. What can we learn from the studies of Carl Simonton, M. D.?
A. The medical treatment can cure the patient's mental disease.
B. The treatment of a patient by treating the body and the mind is necessary.
C. The mental treatment is more important than medical treatment.
D. Few patients have emotional response to the disease.
68. The use of psychological therapy is helpful to some patients in that .
A. the medical effect is better with psychological therapy than without it
B. the patients can see a powerful beam of radiation hitting their tumor cells
C. the patients' attitudes towards themselves have changed
D. the patients are easy to accept the methods the doctors use to treat them
69. It can be learned from the passage that suggestion therapy cannot be used to .
A. help adults deal with the strong pain of some diseases
B. help the patients with chronic diseases C. help change some bad habits
D. help cure patients of insomnia（失眠症）
70. According to the passage, which of the following remains unknown so far?
A. The value of mental therapy. B. The effectiveness of suggestion therapy.
C. The working principle of suggestion therapy.
D. The importance of psychology in medical treatment.
Elderly women who eat foods higher in potassium（钾）are less likely to have strokes and die than women who eat less potassium-rich foods, according to new research in the American Heart Association. “Previous studies have shown that potassium consumption may lower blood pressure. But whether potassium intake could prevent stroke or death wasn’t clear,” said Smoller, professor of the department of population health at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY.
Researchers studied 90,137 women, aged from 50 to 79 for an average 11 years. They looked at how much potassium the women consumed, as well as if they had strokes, including ischemic strokes （缺血性中风）, or died during the study period. Women in the study were stroke-free at the start and their average dietary potassium intake was 2,611 mg/day. Results of this study are based on potassium from food, not supplements.
The researchers found: Women who ate the most potassium were 12 percent less likely to suffer stroke in general and 16 percent less likely to suffer an ischemic stroke than women who ate the least. Women who ate the most potassium were 10 percent less likely to die than those who ate the least. Among women who did not have high blood pressure, those who ate the most potassium had a 27 percent lower ischemic stroke risk and 21 percent reduced risk for all stroke types, compared to women who ate the least potassium in their daily diets. Among women with high blood pressure, those who ate the most potassium had a lower risk of death, but potassium intake did not lower their stroke risk.
“Our findings suggest that women need to eat more potassium-rich foods. You won’t find high potassium in junk food. Some foods rich in potassium include white and sweet potatoes, bananas and white beans.”
The U.S. Department of Agriculture recommends that women eat at least 4,700 mg of potassium daily. “Only 2.8 percent of women in our study met or went beyond this level. The World Health Organization’s daily potassium recommendation for women is lower, at 3,510 mg or more. Still, only 16.6 percent of women we studied met or went beyond that,” said Smoller.
While increasing potassium intake is probably a good idea for most elderly women, there are some people who have too much potassium in their blood, which can be dangerous to the heart. “People should check with their doctor about how much potassium they should eat,” she said.
The study was observational and included only elderly women. Researchers also did not take sodium （钠） intake into consideration, so the potential importance of a balance between sodium and potassium is not among the findings. Researchers said more studies are needed to determine whether potassium has the same effects on men and younger people.
61. The benefits of potassium intake to elderly women do not include ______.
A. preventing strokes B. reducing heart attacks
C. cutting down death risks D. lowering blood pressure
62. Which of the following figure meets the daily potassium intake recommendation of the World Health Organization?
A. 4,000 mg B. 3,500 mg C. 3,000 mg D. 2,500 mg
63. What conclusion can be drawn from the research findings?
A. Increasing potassium is definitely a good idea for all elderly women.
B. Elderly women with high blood pressure benefit more from potassium.
C. Potassium intake is more beneficial to those without high blood pressure.
D. There was not any association between potassium intake and ischemic strokes.
64. The author’s purpose for writing this passage is to ______.
A. present a report on a new research B. show the importance of a good life style
C. give information about a chemical element D. encourage elderly women to take potassium
Scientists are debating how to limit their newly-discovered power to change genetic structure (结构). Scientists already modify the genes of farm animals and agricultural plants to make them more productive or stronger. But now they can also change genes in wild animals and plants. These genes would continue into later generations. For example, it may be possible for scientists to remove from existence the kind of mosquitoes, small flying insects, that carry the Zika virus. They might also be able to permanently remove species of plants and animals that are damaging to other species.
In a report published last week, the U. S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (NAS) said it supports continued research on this kind of gene control. But it warned that it is not possible to know what will happen when these changed plants and animals are released into the wild.
Sixteen biologists, ethicists and policymakers are on an NAS committee that is examining the issue. They say that there is value to the new technology. But, they say, there is not enough evidence to support the release of modified organisms from the laboratory into nature.
Many people would support stopping mosquitoes and rats from carrying diseases. But scientists say we must understand the possible scientific, ethical, legal and social results of such action before we decide whether to take it. Gene modification is spread through reproduction.
Changed genes will continue to spread as long as an animal or plant continues to reproduce. They cannot be limited to a farm or kept within a country's borders. Scientists are wondering what may happen if a modified organism mates with another species. They are not yet sure how the modified genes would affect the other species. It is possible that those genes could harm those creatures or even lead to their disappearance from our planet.
58. What possible advantage does gene control in wild animals and plants have?
A. Changing the Zika virus permanently. B. Getting rid of damaging species forever.
C. Having the changed genes in their next generations.
D. Making all the species more productive and stronger.
59. Which of the following is true according to the passage?
A. Scientists are certain what exact results gene modification leads to.
B. Gene modification can benefit some farm animals and agricultural plants.
C. Scientists won't modify any genes before they make the final decision.
D. Gene modification will be encouraged in more creatures in the near future.
60. The article is mainly intended to ______.
A. appeal against research on gene control B. show how to change genetic structure
C. inform us of power and danger of gene control
D. give the reason why gene modification is necessary
Air pollution, such as smog, has become a serious problem around the world. Besides wearing a mask, what else can we do to protect ourselves from the dirty air?
Scientists have developed a new inhaler (吸入剂) that can reduce the effect air pollution has on people. It could help millions of people who are suffering from air pollution, the Guardian reports.
This inhaler is developed by German company Bitop and contains a molecule (分子) named Ectoine. The molecule creates a layer (涂层) that protects lungs from polluted air. It’s reported that the inhaler will be affordable to most people when it comes to the market.
Air pollution kills more than three million people a year worldwide and leads to health problems like lung and heart disease and strokes, according to a 2015 research project in the journal Nature. It is also linked to brain disease, mental illness and diabetes (糖尿病).
Andreas Bilstein at Bitop believed that the inhaler could be useful around the world, because air pollution is not just a European problem: “Especially in Asia － China in particular － the demand for such a product is even higher.”
Many Chinese cities have been suffering from smog. According to World Health Organization, two of the 10 most polluted cities in the world in 2014 were in China. About 800,000 deaths that are linked to air pollution take place in the country every year.
However, such inhalers should never be an excuse for not trying to stop air pollution, said Professor Jean Krutmann at the Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine. “The best thing is that we have clean air and we don’t need any prophylactic (预防性的) treatment,” he said.
32. What is the new inhaler?
A. It can help protect the environment.
B. It can make the dirty air clean.
C. It can solve the air pollution problem.
D. It can help us reduce the harm of air pollution.
33. From the third paragraph, we learn that ______.
A. the inhaler comes from a US company
B. the inhaler is named Ectoine
C. a molecule in the inhaler forms a layer on lungs
D. the inhaler’s price will be too high for most people
34. Which of the following is NOT true?
A. Air pollution kills millions of people a year worldwide.
B. Air pollution can cause mental illness.
C. There are no air pollution problems in Europe.
D. Air pollution is a serious problem in China.
35. Which is Professor Jean Krutmann’s opinion?
A. Such inhalers don’t mean much to people.
B. We should take action to control air pollution.
C. We can depend on inhalers to solve air pollution problems.
D. We’d better produce more medicines to treat lung diseases.
How can you change negative(消极的) thoughts? Many people suggest changing your attitude by thinking of something bright and happy.
However, scientists from Queen’s University in Canada said that there might be another way: by walking like a happy person.
“It is not surprising that our mood and the way we feel affects how we walk, but we want to see whether the way we move also affects how we feel,” explained Nikolaus Troje, the lead scientist, to The Independent.
Scientists believed that the way we remember emotional messages is affected by our mood. Those who suffer from depression (抑郁) remember negative information far more easily than active messages, especially when the information is about them.
In order to prove this, Troje and his team used cameras to observe 47 people walking on the treadmill (跑步机). Half of the people were encouraged to mimic (模仿) a depressive walking style, while the other half moved like a happy person. Walking speed was kept equal for both groups.
During the time on the treadmill, the scientists read out a list of active and negative words, asking people to decide whether or not each word described them well. Afterwards, people were asked to recite as many of the words as they could remember.
As expected, those who had been mimicking a depressed walk remembered more negative words than those that had been walking in a happy manner.
This finding means that our walk influences the way we treat information. And the scientists believe that using a happy walking style could help with treatment for depression.
28. What new way did scientists from Queen’s University possibly find to change negative thoughts?
A. Doing something happy. B. Thinking of something bright.
C. Walking like a happy person. D. Thinking about being a happy person.
29. Which of the following is NOT true about Troje’s test?
A. The 47 people walked on the treadmill.
B. Half of the people walked in a depressive walking style.
C. Another half walked in a happy walking style.
D. The two groups walked at different speeds.
30. In the test, those who walked in a happy manner ______.
A. remembered more negative words B. remembered more positive words
C. lived a happier life D. lived a harder life
31. According to the story, the finding can help ______.
A. treat patients with depression B. improve one’s acting skills
C. deal with people’s memory loss D. change a person’s exercise habit
A number of scientific studies have suggested that repeatedly heading a football could increase the risk of developing dementia(痴呆症) in later life.
In 2002, former England international footballer Jeff Astle died aged 59. A coroner(验尸官) said that Astle died from a brain disease likely to have been caused by “repeated small damages to the brain” related to heading a heavy leather football.
Dr. Scott Delaney, research director of emergency medicine at McGill University Health Center in Montreal, Canada, has also researched soccer-related head injury and agrees that head-to-head or elbow-to-head blows are the real risk.
In 2007, Delaney carried out a study on footballers ages between 12 and 17 that showed they were half as likely to be concussed(使脑部受到震荡) wearing headgear(帽) than without.
He said youngsters have a higher risk of head injury than adults because their heads are thinner and less able to absorb shock. To make matters worse, their neck muscles aren’t as well developed and they often lack the correct heading technique that can help throw away the force of the ball.
Delaney recommends that children wear headgear when playing football and says his two eldest children wear head protection playing the sport. But he admits that children can admits that children can be unwilling to be the first to wear head protection—especially when their football heroes play without it.
While headgear can protect footballers from being concussed during a match, no one knows the long-term effects of repeated “sub-concussive” blow to the head.
Delaney says that while there is indirect evidence that a career in soccer can lead to dementia, no one has yet found a definitive link between the two. He says proving a link would mean monitoring hundreds of footballers for three of four decades—and that would take a lot of funding.
24. According to Dr Scott Delaney’s research, what may be the most possible injuries to head?
A. Long-term effects of blows. B. Head-to-head or elbow-to-head blows.
C. Underdeveloped neck muscles. D. Wearing head protection.
25. Children are unwilling to wear headgear because they think ______.
A. headgear is harmful to their heads B. headgear influences their skills
C. they mustn’t lead the fashion D. they should follow their idols
26. What can be the most important fact to carry out the research?
A. Funding to support the research. B. Time to look into the research.
C. Data from the footballers’ injury. D. Influences on footballers of different ages.
27. Which might be the best title of the passage?
A. Evidence to dementia.
B. Repeated small damages to the brain.
C. Playing football may lead to brain damage.
D. Footballers should wear headgear when playing.
Imagine clearing leaves on Christmas, or sweep on Memorial Day. What about going for a swim on Thanksgiving? Without Leap Day(闰日), which takes place every four years, it could happen.
Our calendar(日历)is normally 365 days long. It was created to match the cycles of the seasons. But Roman Dictator Julius Caesar noticed a problem: the Earth doesn’t circle the sun in exactly 365 days. It actually takes 365 and one-quarter days. He figured out that the extra part of a day would cause the calendar to grow apart from the seasons over time. Over 100 years, the seasons would shift about 24 days. Spring would start on April 13 instead of March 20.
Caesar used math to figure out a way to stop the calendar from shifting. He decided to add an extra day to the month of February every four years. His idea helped keep the seasons and calendar matched up. Even so, it still wasn’t perfect—his calendar was adding too many days.
In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII worked on Caesar’s idea. His calendar, called the Gregorian calendar, dictates that every year evenly divided by 400 is a leap year. These complicated equations(方程式)help keep the calendar in balance with the orbit of the Earth. Today, we still use the Gregorian calendar. In about 3,000 years, the calendar will be only one day out of step with the seasons. It’s still not perfect, but mathematicians decided it was as close as we could get.
So what happens when someone is born on Leap Day? Do these people celebrate their birthday each year, or do they instead have to wait four years to age? How rare is a Leap Day birthday? The chance of someone being born on a Leap Day is 1 out of 1,461. Babies born on February 29 are sometimes known as leapers. How will you celebrate Leap Day?
28. What could happen without Leap Day?
A. Spring would start later than March 20
B. Our calendar is 365 days long every year
C. A day would be left over to the next year
D. Seasons would stay the same every year
29. Which of the following will be a leap year?
A. 2040 B. 2100 C. 2200 D. 2400
30. We still use the Gregorian calendar because _________.
A. it is a perfect calendar
B. it is in balance with the orbit of the Earth
C. it is accurate to show the birthday of people
D. it is Pope Gregory XIII that created the calendar
31. A Leap Day birthday is mentioned in the last paragraph to show _______.
A. the fun of Leap Day B. the uses of Leap Day
C. the rareness of Leap Day D. the origin of Leap Day
Contrary to the big, scary roars(吼叫)that we see at the movies, dinosaurs, even the large ones, might not have roared at all. Just as we now know that dinosaurs had feathers and potentially had mating(交配) ways similar to modern birds, it’s very possible that dinosaurs sounded more like birds than we’d like to think. In a paper published in Evolution researchers raise the possibility that the sounds some birds might have their roots in the vocalizations(发声)of their ancestors: Dinosaurs.
“To make any kind of sense of what dinosaurs sounded like, we need to understand how living birds vocalize,” co-author of the paper Julia Clarke said. “Not only were dinosaurs feathered, but they may have had bulging(隆起的)necks and made booming, closed-mouth sounds.”
This is just one possibility in the wide world of dinosaur sounds. The one thing that everyone can agree on his that without the help of a time machine, we’re never going to know whether dinosaurs sounded more like birds or snakes, or crocodiles. We can make educated guesses but the fact is that most sounds are made with soft parts of an animal’s body; the tongue, the throat, the lungs, and, unlike bones, those just don’t survive for millions of years.
In the past, researchers have looked at the size of lungs and the shape of the neck to try to determine the volume. Even if they can’t definitively tell what kind of sounds they were making, it’s likely that a large dinosaur, with large lungs would be able to make louder noises than a smaller dinosaur with smaller lungs.
We might never know exactly what a dinosaur sounds like, but by listening to large birds and reptiles, we might come close.
33. According to the first paragraph, dinosaurs’ vocalizations may sound more like _________.
A. birds B. snakes C. crocodiles D. tigers
34. What is the biggest trouble for scientists to study dinosaurs’ vocalizations?
A. Lack of money
B. The objection of the public
C. The objection of government
D. Lack of dinosaurs’ existing vocalizing organs
35. What may be the best title for the text?
A. Dinosaurs Lived Happily B. Birds’ Ancestor: Dinosaurs
C. Dinosaurs May No Roar D. Birds’ Strange Vocalizations
Insects (昆虫) are a very healthy food. They have almost as much protein (蛋白质) as meat from a pig or cow and are low in fat. Eating insects is also very good for the environment since they need less land and water than larger animals.
Marcel Dicke, who studies insects, explained in a talk how insects also produce more meat from the food they eat. For example, imagine a farmer feeds a cow 10 pounds of food. Those 10 pounds of food produce about 1 pound of meat for people to eat. However, imagine the farmer gives a certain number of insects 10 pounds of food. Those 10 pounds of food produce 9 pounds of meat for people to eat!
Eating more insects can also help people in poor areas. Many people can raise and sell insects, which can provide jobs and food.
But insects will not replace (替代) animal meat very quickly. First, people in some countries would have to change how they think about eating insects. Many people in North America and Europe eat a lot of meat like beef and pork. But they do not traditionally eat insects. In fact, for many people in the west, eating insects sounds crazy! They believe insects are dirty and dangerous. Insects make them feel uncomfortable.
Some people are trying to deal with this problem. For example, David George Gordon wrote a book named “The Eat-A-Bug Cookbook”, which tries to show people that insects can be delicious. Other insect experts travel around telling people about the benefits (好处) of eating insects. But they still have a lot of work to do.
8. Eating insects _____.
A. is not healthy
B. makes people put on fat
C. helps protect large animals
D. is environmentally friendly
9. The example of Marcel Dicke is given to show _____.
A. the high cost of food production
B. it’s quite easy for farmers to raise insects
C. raising insects is a good choice for farmers
D. the different ways of feeding cows and insects
10. The long way eating insects has to go mainly results from _____.
A. their terrible taste B. people’s old beliefs
C. family traditions D. eating methods
11. We can infer from David and other insect experts that _____.
A. people can make a lot of money from insects
B. insects should be better protected
C. people should eat more insects
D. it’s dangerous to eat insects
The Arctic will soon be free from ice, experts say. The change is bound to take place, but the global warming and climate change are changing the earth’s landscape (地形) rapidly，causing panic worldwide.
Experts say that the Arctic sea ice is melting (融化) quite faster than expected and it can affect not just the region, but Earth in general. A scientist even says that next year, or maybe the year after that, the Arctic will be free of ice.
Peter Wadhams, a scientist, said that the melting trend led to his statement. “Most people expect this year will see a record low in the Arctic’s summer sea-ice cover. Next year or the year after that, I think it will be free of ice in summer and by that I mean the central Arctic will be ice-free,” Peter Wadhams, director of the Scott Polar Institute in Cambridge, said in an interview with the Guardian. “You will be able to cross over the North Pole by ship,” Peter Wadhams added. He strongly believes that although some pieces of ice will remain, the Arctic basin may be free of sea ice in the next two years starting in the summer of 2017.
Wadhams’ study says that melting sea ice will have a great influence on the planet since the sea ice is more capable of reflecting (反射) sunlight compared to water that can only reflect 10% of the sunlight. Once the sea ice melts, the water can only reflect a small amount of sunlight. This means that the Earth will receive and absorb more sunlight, making the planet even hotter.
The year 2016 has already broken records of the hottest temperature ever recorded and the trend doesn’t seem to show any decrease in global warming. “It doesn’t look like the ice is healing and growing back,” Tom Wagner, NASA’s manager for cryosphere (冰冻圈) research said in a statement.
Like Wadhams, scientists and researchers all over the world are lecturing around to educate people to help lighten global warming that has already changed the planet’s landscape.
32. What does the author think of global warming and climate change?
A. Indifferent B. Anxious C. Unbelievable D. Misunderstood
33. What can we learn from the second paragraph?
A. What experts say has caused worldwide fear and great anxiety.
B. The speed of the Arctic sea ice being melted is beyond expectation.
C. The melting of the Arctic sea ice only has a great effect on this region.
D. It’s impossible that the Arctic will be free from ice in one or two years.
34. Why would the Earth become even hotter if the sea ice melted? Because_____.
A. more water will cover the earth. B. there are more hours of daylight.
C. the water will reflect more sunlight. D. more heat would be taken in by the earth.
35. What is the passage mainly about?
A. According to some experts, the Arctic may be free from ice soon because of global warming and climate change.
B. The Arctic melting sea ice will affect the planet greatly.
C. The Arctic will be free from ice in two years.
D. Global warming are changing the earth’s landscape quickly.
It was a long week for Amanda at school. She stayed after school to work on a special project(课题) three days in a row. When she got home on Friday, she dropped into the chair with a sigh.
“What’s going on, Amanda?” her dad asked as he was reading the newspaper.
“I have to create a webpage for my technology class, and it is taking a lot more time than I thought it would,” Amanda answered.
Her dad looked over his newspaper and asked Amanda what the webpage was about.
“It’s about the difference between newspaper news and Internet news,” Amanda said and added, “I have to provide information, examples and illustrations(插图).”
“Sounds tough; do you have someone to help you?” her dad asked.
“I have a partner named Zach,” Amanda replied. “We did research on the Internet today and found some pictures to use.”
Then Amanda explained to her father the main differences: newspaper news is printed on paper, and Internet news is published online; newspaper news is only available once a day, and Internet news is published almost as soon as the news happens; many newspapers don’t even print a daily paper, and Internet news is published around the clock.
Amanda’s dad asked, “Which type of news do you like better?”
“I like Internet news better because I like to learn about the news when it happens,” she answered.
Her dad said, “I still like newspaper news better because I like to hold the paper in my hands and turn the pages.”
Amanda dropped into her chair again and said, “You are so old school, Dad.”
24. Why did Amanda sigh when she came home?
A. She failed to pass the exam. B. She was tired of school life.
C. She was worried about her school project. D. She made a mistake in her technology class.
25. What did Amanda’s father think of her work on creating a webpage for her technology class?
A. Exciting. B. Boring. C. Interesting. D. Difficult.
26. Which of the following may Amanda agree with?
A. People should pay for Internet news. B. Newspaper news will soon disappear.
C. Internet news is given to readers in good time. D. It is wrong to say no to newspaper news.
27. What kind of person is Amanda’s father?
A. He is a man who misses the past.
B. He is a man who cares little about news.
C. He is a man who knows the computer well.
D. He is a man who cannot live without the Internet.
A DAY OUT IN BRITAIN
Are you planning to visit Britain? Here are a few suggestions for a beautiful weekend away.
This famous tourist town has 11 km of beautiful beaches. Last year, 10,000 tourists visited this beautiful town. It’s the perfect place to go swimming or sailing. There are lots of lovely parks and gardens to visit and it’s a great place to eat out. You can also go to a classical concert or go dancing in one of the nightclubs.
This was William Shakespeare’s hometown. He spent most of his life in this town and wrote his plays here. You can visit his house or see his plays at one of the Royal Shakespeare Company’s theatres. There are some interesting museums and lots of beautiful 500-year-old house. You can also go on boat trips and visit traditional English villages.
Deep in the Lincolnshire countryside is the pleasant market town of Alford. It is known for its five-sailed windmill(风车). Have a walk round this lovely old place and you’ll see many pleasant houses from as far back as the 17th century. Captain James Smith, who was one of the founders of James town in Virginia, USA, was educated in Alford.
Most people come here to see the 2’000-year-old Roman Baths. But this city is also famous for its beautiful 18th century buildings and was the home of the writer Jane Austen. You can learn about her life at the Jane Austen Centre near Queen’s Square. In the past, Bath was also popular with the royal family and Queen Elizabeth I spent one or two weeks every year here.
21. What can visitors do in Bournemouth?
A．Enjoy plays. B. Go to museums. C. Do sea sports. D. Visit fishing villages.
22. What is Alford famous for?
A. Its stars. B. Its market. C. Its windmill. D. Its nightclubs.
23. Which place did a queen of England use to visit regularly?
A. Bath. B. Alford. C. Stratford-upon-Avon. D. Bournemouth.
The United States Department of Agriculture has a program called Wildlife Services. Its job is to help protect agricultural and other resources from threats and damage by wildlife. Often that means helping farmers deal with unwelcome visitors.
One example from Wildlife Services of its work concerned a farmer in Washington State, in the Pacific Northwest. Several years ago, thousands of Canada geese landed on his fields. The geese began to eat his carrot crop.
Biologists from the program suggested that the farmer use noise-making devices and other measures to scare the large birds away. These efforts succeeded.
Wildlife Services also has a livestock(家禽) protection program. The agency kills foxes, wolves and other predators(食肉动物). Some people, however, who are against it, say too many animals are killed that do not do harm to livestock.
The Wildlife Services program is part of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). APHIS offers some suggestions of ways to keep away predators.
For example, try to keep food and water safe from wildlife. Fences may help keep out wolves, especially if the fences are at least two meters high. For best results, the bottom of the fence should extend(延伸到) about fifteen centimeters into the ground.
The experts also suggest using lights above places where animals are kept. And they advise people who see wolves around their property to chase them away by shouting, making loud noises or throwing rocks.
For home gardeners, a two-meter fence might help keep out deer. To keep out rabbits, a wire fence has to be only about a half-meter high. It should extend over fifteen centimeters underground to keep rabbits from digging under it.
29.Which of the following is Wildlife Services expected to do according to the passage?
A. To protect wildlife that is in danger. B. To help farmers deal with unwelcome wildlife.
C. To help farmers whose families are poor D. To kill unwelcome wildlife
30.Why is the farmer mentioned in the second paragraph?
A. To show how Wildlife Services was set up. B. To show what serious trouble farmers are in.
C. To show what Wildlife Services does D. To show how harmful Canada geese are.
31.Why are some people against the livestock protection program?
A. Because too many harmless animals are also killed.
B. Because too much noises are made.
C. Because it costs too much money.
D. Because they don’t think it successful in protecting the livestock.
32.Which of the following ways is not suggested if wolves are seen?
A. Making loud noises B. Throwing rocks C. Shouting D. Firing at them
Most kinds of rose plants come from Asia. But roses are also native to other areas including northwest Africa, Europe and the United States. In 1986, Congress chose the rose as America’s national flower. Technically, Congress and President Ronald Reagan declared it the “national floral emblem.” Whatever the name, the decision did not smell sweet to lovers of other flowers.
Some people say roses are difficult to grow. But you have a good chance of success if you start with a few suggestions from experts.
You can buy roses form a garden center or by mail order. You can buy potted roses, also known as container roses, or bare-root plants. Each kind has its fans. Some gardeners say potted roses are easier to plant. They say the roots develop better. But bare-root roses come without soil, making them weigh less to transport.
Another expert advises getting bare-foot roses as close to planting time as you can. You should plant your roses where they can get sunshine or about six hours on bright days. If they arrive before you are ready to plant them, make sure the packing material is moist. Keep the plants in a cool, dark place. The resting plants have no leaves but still need water. When growing roses, the soil should feel moist deep down. Watering should be done in the morning.
In normal conditions, placing mulch around rose plants is a good idea. Mulch suppresses weeds and holds moisture in the soil. You can use mulch made from grasses or leaves. If your soil is very dry, you can add soil and compost，which returns nutrients to the soil. If aphids or other insects invade your bushes, you may be able to force them off with just a strong spray of water.
32. What information can we get from Paragraph one?
A. All roses originated from Asia. B. Roses are difficult to grow in Europe.
C. Many countries also grow roses. D. Other flowers did not smell sweet.
33. When you plant roses, you should .
A. Plant them in the wet soil
B. Plant them in a bright day
C. Find a cool and dark place to plant them
D. Avoid watering them at dusk
34. The underlined word “suppresses” in the last paragraph probably means .
A. promotes B. controls C. ignores D. organizes
35. What is the text mainly about?
A. How to choose roses. B. Where to grow roses.
C. How to grow roses. D. When to plant roses.
The fact that trees are vital to our life is no secret. They provide us with food, wood and most importantly, oxygen. Now there is one more thing you can add to this list -blocking out harmful bacteria from water.
The discovery was pointed out by a team made up of scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and high school student who were seeking a natural water filter — one that would help communities in developing countries that are not equipped with modern water systems.
The researchers, led by Rohit Karnik, a professor at MIT, decided to turn to trees for help because they allow liquid to flow through, while blocking out air bubbles.
They began by cutting 1.5-inch-wide sections of tree bark from the branches of a white pine tree. The researchers then tested the wood's filtering ability by pouring water containing red dye particles (粒子) of different sizes, through. To their astonishment, they found that it was effective in trapping all the particles. Encouraged, the team conducted another experiment, this time with water that contained bacteria. Sure enough, the sapwood (边材) held back 99% of the bacteria, allowing only 1% to flow through.
Mr. Karnik says that the bark was able to filter water containing much smaller particles. This means that barks can be used to get rid of a majority of bacteria, since most are at least 10 times as wide. However, what troubles them is that tree barks aren’t blocking out viruses, which tend to be much smaller.
Also, while the pine sapwood is effective, we must remember one thing—it only works when it is moist. This means that before this natural filter can be put to practical use, the researchers will have to figure out how to keep the wood damp, or find a way to keep the bark's great filtering capability even when it's dry!
But the team is not done yet. They plan on testing other types of sapwood, including those from flowering trees which have smaller pores (气孔). They think that these may be more effective in trapping smaller particles and even viruses
32. How could the scientists’ discovery about trees affect some developing countries?
A. More pine trees will be planted. B. Bacteria will be removed from water.
C. People won’t worry about water pollution. D. Clean water will become more accessible.
33. In the experiments, the researchers ________.
A. found tree barks can’t get rid of viruses B. used water containing particles of similar size
C. were surprised tree barks remove all the bacteria D. made sure most particles were bigger than bacteria
24. The underlined word “moist” in the passage probably means ________.
A. hot B. cold
C. dry D. wet
35. The team is going to conduct other experiments to ________.
A. search for more kinds of wood barks B. find a way to keep the wood damp
C. improve the filtering ability of trees D. test the filtering ability of other trees