A food chain is a simple way of explaining how each living thing gets its food.For example,a simple African food chain might consist of three parts:（1）trees and bushes;（2）giraffes;and（3）lions.Each link in a food chain is food for the next link.Food chains always start with plants and end with animals.
Plants are at the bottom of the food chain.Scientists call them producers,because they use light energy from the sun to produce food from carbon dioxide and water through photosynthesis（光合作用）.Animals,unlike plants,can’t produce their own food.Instead,they must eat plants or other animals.This is why scientists call them consumers.
Consumer animals fall into three categories.Herbivores eat only plan’s.Carnivores eat only other animals. Omnivores eat both plants and animals.In addition to producers and consumers,there are also decomposers.These organisms,such as bacteria and fungi,feed on decaying matter.They help the food chain by speeding up the decaying process that releases minerals back into the soil to be absorbed by plants as nutrients.
Most food chains have only four or five links in them.As you go up a food chain,the amount of energy at each level diminishes,because some of the energy is lost in the form of waste or is used up by the organism at the level.That is why it takes many plants,for example,to feed a few giraffes who in turn feed one lion.
Most animals are part of many different food chains,because they must eat more than one type of food to satisfy their energy needs.All of these interconnected food chains form a more complex structure called a food web.Humans, for example,are at the center of a very complex food web,because we tend to eat many different types of plants and animals.
32.Which of the following tells us the African food chain?
A.Trees,giraffes and lions live on one another.
B.Giraffes eat lions and lions feed on bushes.
C.Lions live on giraffes and giraffes eat trees.
D.Bushes live on lions and lions eat giraffes.
33.In the second paragraph,the author is mainly to .
A.emphasize the importance of the plants B.compare the plants and the animals
C.present the scientists’ different views D.explain the producers and consumers
34.The underlined word”diminishes”（in Paragraph 4）probably means .
A.changes B.decreases C.disappears D.increases
35.What would be the best title for this passage?
A.The types of plants and animals B.The differences among the living things
C.Three categories of the consumers D.The food chain in the natural world
Listening to music while you drive can improve your speed and ability to get away from accidents, according to Australian psychologists（心理学家）. But turning your car radio up to full volume could probably make you end up in an accident. The performance of difficult tasks can be affected if people are subjected to loud noise. The experience of pulling up at traffic lights alongside cars with loud music made some psychologists in the University of Sydney look into whether loud music has something to do with driving.
The psychologists invited 60 men and women aged between 20 and 28 as subjects and tested them on almost the same driving tasks under three noise conditions: silence、rock music played at a gentle 55 decibels（分贝） and the same music at 85 decibels.
For 10 minutes the subjects sat in front of a screen operating a simple machine like a car. They had to track a moving disk on screen， respond to traffic signals changing color and brake（刹车）in response to arrows that appeared without warning.
On the tracking task. there was no difference in performance under the three noise conditions. But under both the loud and quiet music conditions. the performers “braked” at a red light about 50 milliseconds sooner than they did when there was no rock music at all. That could mean a reduction in braking distance of a couple of meters actually. the difference between life and death for a pedestrian（行人）.
When it came to the arrows that appeared across the visual field. the psychologists found that when the music was quiet. people responded faster to objects in their central field of sight by about 50 milliseconds. For the people listening at 85 decibels. response times dropped by a further 50 milliseconds—a whole tenth of second faster than those “driving” with no music.
“But there’s a trade-off.” the psychologists told the European Congress of Psychology. “They lose the ability to look around the whole situation effectively. ” In responding to objects that suddenly appeared. people subjected to 85—decibel rock music were around 100 milliseconds slower than both the other groups. Since some accident—such as children running into the road—take place without any notice. drivers listening to loud music must be less safe as a result.
25. Which of the following is the best way to make driving safer?
A. Loud music. B. Quiet music. C. Silence. D. Heavy metal music.
26. What does the phrase “the pulling up” in paragraph two mean?
A. Stopping. B. Giving somebody a lift.
C. Putting up with. D. Driving.
27. Where did the researchers do the experiment?
A. At crossroads. B. At a police traffic station.
C. In a crowed street. D. Under the same conditions as those of the streets.
28. Which of the following is NOT true of loud music?
A. It helped the performers to brake sooner at red lights.
B. It helped the performers to be more careful.
C. It helped the performers to respond faster to objects stepping in the way.
D. It can do more good than harm to drivers.
Robots performing tasks according to a predetermined(预先设定的) set of instructions are nothing new. But robots able to learn how to cook by watching videos are a completely different approach, which is conducted by a group of researchers at the University of Maryland.
If you have posted a video of your favorite recipe on the popular web site YouTube, chances are that it will be used by a robot. University of Maryland professor Hyannis Alimonies, leader of the group, said "there exists a large amount of video information on the Internet that our robots can capitalize on. "
"At present, the videos are fed electronically," said research scientist Cornelia Ferule, "Originally, we took our own videos, our cameras looking at us doing the cooking." she explained. "And, as the robot advanced, it reacted to good quality videos. And it will react to even lower quality home-made videos. "
So far, the robot named Julia can make a simple salad by breaking each task into basic parts, such as grasping a spoon, bringing it to the bowl, stirring the salad and observing the results.
But why teach a robot to understand a video when it can easily follow a fixed program? Alimonies believes predetermined instructions lack flexibility. He thinks one of the problems is how to make the robot understand and use what it learns during a certain task, the so-called feedback(反馈). "I believe it will take quite some time before the robots are able to understand metaphorical(比喻的) language," he added. "But," he said, "we don't need that to create a new world where the robots will be working for us. "
67. The underlined phrase "capitalize on" probably means ________.
A. rely on B. pay attention to C. make use of D. watch over
68. Alimonies probably agrees that at present the robot ________.
A. can not make a simple salad B. can not fully understand what it learns
C. can follow home-made videos D. can understand metaphorical language
69. Robots are taught to understand a video mainly because ________.
A. they can easily follow fixed programs
B. they are smart enough to learn cooking
C. cooking videos are more interesting to watch
D. predetermined instructions are not flexible
70. Which of the following might best serve as the title of the passage?
A. Robots Creating a New World
B. Robots Making Cooking Videos
C. Robots Learning to Cook by Watching Videos
D. Robots Performing Tasks by Following Instructions
Giving Many Poppins’s magic umbrella some serious competition is the all high-tech “Oombrella”---not only can it predict the weather, it’s also impossible to lose. The smart umbrella syncs(同步进行) with a smartphone app, sending users updates about weather conditions 30 minutes in advance, and reminders if they happen to leave the device behind. And here’s the added bonus – it won’t ever flip inside-out.
Designed by French company Wezzoo, the rainbow-colored umbrella comes in two versions – classic and modern. The classic is 3.1-ft long with a curved handle, while the modern version is 0.8-ft long with a straight handle. The company describes the device as a ‘portable weather station’, made of a reflective surface with built in sensors that record real-time data such as light, humidity, pressure, and temperature. The umbrella collects and processes this data as well as information from a social media community before sending out alerts about when it’s going to start raining.
And if the user happens to accidentally forget it at home on a potentially rainy day, or leaves it in a restaurant, similar alerts will be sent out using GPS technology to make sure you don’t lose it.
“We wanted to make this umbrella unforgettable in terms of design, too,” explains Alexandre, of Escabo design studio. “We developed an exclusive material. It makes you feel you are holding an aurora borealis(北极光) in your hands. It has effects that are amazing with the light and always changing. It really makes the umbrella special.” The ‘capsule’ that integrates all the technology, making the umbrella smart, is located in the handle.
The umbrella is all set to hit global online and physical stores this fall. According to a company spokesperson, it will retail at 9 ($86), but the early bird price on Kickstarter is 9 ($64). For those who are rather attached to their current umbrellas, the company will also release an ‘Oombrella capsule’ that can transform any umbrella into a smart device. Now, if only it could make us fly like Mary Poppins!
32. What does Paragraph 1 mainly tell us about Oombrella?
A. Its special design B. Its working principle
C. Its functions D. Its structure
33. Which of the following best shows how Oombrella works?
A. collect—process—record—predict B. process—record—collect—predict
C. record—collect—process—predict D. record—process---collect---predict
34. What can we learn from the last paragraph?
A. Oombrella is already on sale
B. Early buyers of Oombrella will save money
C. It’s impossible to turn an ordinary umbrella into a smart one
D. Oombrella is a magic device that can make us fly
35. What’s the purpose of the author writing the passage?
A. To introduce readers a new type of umbrella
B. To show readers how to predict the weather
C. To remind readers to take an umbrella at any time
D. To persuade readers to buy the high-tech umbrella
Women who own cats are more likely to have mental health problems and kill themselves because they can be infected by a common parasite that can be caught from cat litter，a study has found．
Researchers found women infected with the Toxoplasma gondii （T．gondii） parasite（刚地弓形虫），which is spread through contact with cat waste or eating undercooked meat or unwashed vegetables，are at increased risk of attempting suicide．
The study involved more than 45，000women in Denmark．About a third of the world's population is infected with the parasite，which hides in cells in the brain and muscles，often without producing symptoms．
The infection，which is called toxoplasmosis（弓形虫病），has been linked to mental illness，such as schizophrenia（精神分裂症），and changes in behavior．
The study's senior author Doctor Teodor Postolache，an associate professor of psychiatry（精神病学） at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in the United States，said，"We can't say with certainty that T．gondii caused the women to try to kill themselves，but we did find a predictive association between the infection and suicide attempts later in life that deserves additional studies．"
Doctor Albert Reece，vice president of medical affairs at the University of Maryland，said，"T．gondii infection is a major public health problem around the world，and many people don't realize they're infected．
"Dr Postolache is a leading expert on suicide neuroimmunology（神经免疫学）．Suicide is a critically important mental health issue．About one million people commit suicide and another 10million attempt suicide worldwide each year．We hope that this type of research will one day help us find ways to save many lives that now end too early in suicide．"
Dr．Postolache's research team at the University of Maryland was the first to report a connection between T．gondii and suicidal behavior in 2009．He is cooperating with researchers in Denmark，Germany and Sweden to confirm and investigate the way leading to this association．
The T．gondii parasite thrives in the intestines of cats，and it is spread through their waste．All warm﹣blooded animals can become infected through contact with it．Humans can become infected by changing their infected cats'litter boxes，eating unwashed vegetables，drinking water from a polluted source，or by eating undercooked or raw meat．
Not washing kitchen knives after preparing raw meat before handling another food item also can lead to infection．Pregnant women can pass the parasite directly to their unborn babies and are advised not to change cat litter boxes to avoid possible infection．
Babies don't produce antibodies to T．gondii for three months after they are born，so the antibodies present in their blood represented infection in the mothers．The scientists studied Danish health patients to determine if any of these women later attempted suicide，including cases of violent suicide attempts which may have involved guns，sharp instruments and jumping from high places．
The study found that women infected with T．gondii were one and a half times more likely to attempt suicide compared to those who were not infected，and the risk seemed to rise with increasing levels of the T．gondii antibodies．
Dr Postolache noted limitations to the study，such as the inability to determine the cause of the suicidal behavior．
The findings were published online in the Archives of General Psychiatry．
50．The objects of the research are women from ．
A．Demark B．the USA C．Germany D．Sweden
51．The common way which is more likely to be infected with the disease is ．
A．to eat unwashed vegetables or undercooked meat
B．to clean a place where a cat once lived for a time
C．to pass the infection to her unborn baby during a woman's pregnancy
D．to reuse kitchen tools which have been used to cut raw meat
52．What is the consequence if a woman is infected with the parasite in the passage？
A．Having a high fever．
B．Doing deliberate self﹣harm．
C．Keeping a depressed mood．
D．Becoming bad tempered．
53．What can be inferred from the passage？
A．Women have a higher risk to be infected by the parasite than men．
B．The result of the research may help the scientists to find ways to stop suicide in advance．
C．The scientists will continue their research into the possible connection．
D．The risk of being infected seems to rise with the decreasing levels of the antibodies．
54．Which of the following statements would probably be the best title of the passage？
A．Why are women more likely to commit suicide？
B．Women should keep away from cats．
C．Ways found to deal with women's mental problems．
D．Are women who own cats at a suicide risk？
Weeks have passed since the world lost contact with Malaysia Airlines flightMH370and its 239passengers and crew．
Although there is little hope of finding any of the passengers and crew alive，China has been making all﹣out efforts to find what remains of the plane in the southern Indian Ocean，where the plane is believed to have crashed．The search operations involve the navy，the marine police，scientific research and so on．While China's authorities and military forces have passed the test，the search operations have also shown some weaknesses．It is necessary to address these problems because China is a nation that faces many natural disasters．
Lack of professional equipment has been the most notable problem．Among all the ships involved in the search for MH370，only Nanhai jiu 115and Donghai jiu 101and a few other ships have professional rescue equipment．There are also gaps between China and the US in other technologies such as sea﹣probing （探测）equipment and telecommunications．China mainly sent transporter planes，which lacked the necessary equipment to probe the ocean．While the United States sent P﹣3C and P﹣SA planes and MH60﹣R helicopters with equipment that can probe to depths of 76meters and cover 770sq kilometers in four hours．
China's technology clearly needs to be improved，After the plane lost contact on March 8，more than one satellite received signals from it，but there is no report of any of China's satellites receiving a signal．
Besides technology，China urgently needs to strengthen its international soft power，because almost all the important information was first obtained by Western media，which put pressure upon the Malaysian government for more timely and accurate information．Chinese media mainly forwarded the news broken by their Western colleagues．
Last but not least，more attention should be paid to international cooperation．The search and rescue efforts could well have been a race against time to save lives，but limited by international laws and the absence of cooperation mechanisms，China and some other countries involved did not fully share timely information．
39．What is China's most urgent problem to be deal with in rescue work according to the passage？
A．Lack of international cooperation．
B．Not sharing timely information．
C．Lack of professional equipment．
D．Too many natural disasters．
40．Which of the following shows that China's technology needs improving？
A．None of its satellites received any signal after MH370lost touch．
B．Only a few ships have professional rescue equipment．
C．The military forces did not find the missing plane．
D．Chinese media mainly forwarded the news broken by their Western colleagues．
41．What is the best title for this passage？
A．MH370，come back home now
B．China makes all﹣out efforts to find what remains of MH370
C．Lessons to be learnt from MH370search
D．Why the missing MH370cannot be found．
Why do Americans struggle with watching their weight，while the French，who consume（消费） rich food，continue to stay thin？Now a research by Cornell University suggests how life style and decisions about eating may affect weight．Researchers concluded that the French tend to stop eating when they feel full．However，Americans tend to stop when their plate is empty or their favorite TV show is over．
According to Dr．Joseph Mercola，a health expert，the French see eating as an important part of their life style．They enjoy food and therefore spend a fairly long time at the table，while Americans see eating as something to be squeezed between the other daily activities．Mercola believes Americans lose the ability to sense when they are actually full．So they keep eating long after the French would have stopped．In addition，he points out that Americans drive to huge supermarkets to buy canned and frozen foods for the week．The French，instead，tend to shop daily，walking to small shops and farmers'markets where they have a choice of fresh fruits，vegetables，and eggs as well as high﹣quality meats for each meal．
After a visit to the United States，Mireille Guiliano，author of French Women Don't Get Fat，decided to write about the importance of knowing when to stop rather than suggesting how to avoid food．Today she continues to stay slim and rarely goes to the gym．
In spite of all these differences，evidence shows that recent life style changes may be affecting French eating habits．Today the rate of obesity﹣or extreme overweight﹣among adults is only 6%．However，as American fast food gains acceptance and the young reject older traditions，the obesity rate among French children has reached 17%﹣and is growing．
29．In what way are the French different from Americans according to Dr．Joseph Mercola？
A．They go shopping at supermarkets more frequently．
B．They squeeze eating between the other daily activities．
C．They regard eating as a key part of their lifestyles．
D．They usually eat too much canned and frozen food．
30．This text is mainly the relationship between ．
A．Americans and the French
B．life style and obesity（肥胖）
C．children and adults
D．fast food and overweight
31．The text is mainly developed ．
A．by contrast （对比）
32．Where does this text probably come from？
A．A TV interview
B．A food advertisement
C．A health report
D．A book review．
The iPhone，the iPad and the iPod．Each of Apple's products sounds cool and has become a fashion．Apple has cleverly taken advantage of the power of the letter"i"and many other brands are following suit．The BBC's iPlayer，which allows Web users to watch TV programs on the Internet，adopted the title in 2008．A lovely bear （popular in the US and UK ） that plays music and video is called"iTeddy"．A slimmed﹣down version of London's Independent newspaper came out last week under the name"i"．
In general，single﹣letter prefixes have been popular since the 1990s，when terms such as e﹣mail and e﹣commerce first came into use．
Most"i"products are aimed at young people and considering the major readers of Independent's"i"，it is no surprise that they've chosen this fashionable name．
But it's hard to see what's so special about the letter"i"．Why not use"a"，"b"or"c"instead？According to Tony Thorne，head of the Language Center at King's College，London，"i"works because its meaning has become ambiguous．When Apple uses"i"，no one knows whether it means Internet，information，individual or interactive，Mr．Thorne told BBC Magazines，"Even when Apple created the iPad，it seems it didn't have one clear definition．"
"However，thanks to Apple，the term is now associated with portability （轻便），"adds Thorne．
Clearly the letter"i"also agrees with the idea that the Western World is centered on the individual．Each person believes they have their own needs，and they love personalized products for this reason．
Along with"Google"and"Twitter"，readers of BBC Magazines voted"i"as one of the top 20words that have come to define the last decade．
But as history shows，fashions come and go．From the 1900s to 1990s，products with"2000"in their names became fashionable as the year was associated with all things advanced and modern．However，as we entered the new century，the trend inevitably disappeared．
12．People use the iPlayer to ．
A．listen to music
B．make a call
D．watch TV programs online
13．From the passage，we know that the Independent's"i"is aimed at ．
14．Nowadays，the"i"term often reminds people of the products which are ．
15．The author of the passage would probably agree that ．
A．"i"products are often of high quality
B．all"i"products have something to do with Internet
C．the popularity of"i"products may not last long
D．the iTeddy is a live bear．
A few months ago the potato was considered an enemy in the obesity battle but a new study shows the food isn't that bad after all．
In June，researchers from Harvard University found that eating some of the potatoevery day，whether mashed（被磨碎），deep fried or baked，caused more weight gain than an extra can of drink or red or some kind of meat．The conclusion was that it happened because potatoes were always cooked﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣making it easier for the body to change the starch（淀粉） which would increase the blood sugar levels．The body then had to work extra hard to get levels down but falling blood sugar made people hungry，which led to eating more food．
But a University of Otago study showed today brought some good news for spud lovers．It found it was hard to tell the glycemic index（GI）（血糖指数） level of mixed meals for persons．"In general，different foods are tested for GI and it is less usual to test the GI for a whole meal，"one of the study's authors，Hayley Dodd，said．"However，in this study，the GIs of three meals were tested．The meals all contained chicken，peas，carrots and mutton together with a lot of food including potato，white rice or spaghetti．"
It found the GI for each meal lower than thought； researchers had expected the potato meal would have a GI of 65，but it came in at 53，which was low．"Although potato is high﹣GI food into their meals﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣our work suggests that having a small amount of potato with a meal isn't going to drive your blood sugar high．
The study involved 30healthy people aged 18﹣50．The research has been published in the October issue of the American．
8．The underlined word"spud"in the third paragraph may mean ．
9．The potato will make people fat easily when ．
A．it is eaten raw
B．it is cooked
C．it has blood sugar
D．it is eatenwith drinks
10．If a person has a low blood sugar，he will ．
A．feel angry quickly
B．become hungry easily
C．get thin soon
D．eat food slowly
11．From the study of the University of Otago we can know ．
A．people will get fatter and fatter if they eat potatoes
B．potatoes won't make people fat if eaten with others
C．he glycemic index in the potatoes is very low
D．potatoes are the main enemy in the obesity battle．
An environmental group called the Food Commission is unhappy and disappointed because of the sales of bottled water from Japan．The water，it angrily argues in public，has traveled 10，000"food miles"before it reached Western customers．Transporting water halfway across the world is surely the extremely stupid use of fuel when there is plenty of water in the UK．It is also worrying that we were wasting our fuel by buying prawns from Indonesia （7，000food miles ） and carrots from South Africa （5，900food miles）．
Counting the number of miles traveled done by a product is a strange way of trying to tell the true situation of the environmental damage due to industry．Most food is transported around the world on container ships that are extremely energy efficient．It should be noticed that a ton of butter transported 25miles in a truck to a farmers'market doesn't necessarily use less fuel on its journey than a similar product transported hundreds of miles by sea．Besides，the idea of"food miles"ignores the amount of fuel used in the production．It is possible to cut down your food miles by buying tomatoes grown in Britain rather than those grown in Ghana．The difference is that the British ones will have been raised in heated greenhouse and the Ghanaian ones in the open sun．
What is the idea of"food miles"does provide，however，is the chance to cut out Third World countries from First World food markets．The number of miles traveled by our food should，as I see it，be regarded as a sign of the success of the global trade system，not a sign of damage to the environment．
9．The Food Commission is angry because it thinks that ．
A．UK wastes a lot of money importing food products
B．some imported goods causes environmental damage
C．growing certain vegetables causes environmental damage
D．people wasted energy buying food from other countries
10．The phrase"food miles"in the passage refers to the distance ．
A．that a food product travels to a market
B．that a food product travels from one market to another
C．between UK and other food producing countries
D．between a Third World country and a First World food market
11．By comparing tomatoes raised in Britain and in Ghana，the author tries to explain that ．
A．British tomatoes are healthier than Ghanaian ones
B．Ghanaian tomatoes taste better than tomatoes ones
C．cutting down food miles may not necessarily save fuel
D．protecting the environment may cost a lot of money
12．From the passage we know that the author is most probably ．
A．a supporter of free global trade
B．a member of a Food Commission
C．a supporter of First World food markets
D．a member of an energy development group．
Death rates for heart disease in Britain have dropped by more than 40percent in a decade，UK scientists will report today．
Wide uptake of cholesterol﹣busting statin drugs（降胆固醇药），healthier lifestyles and better medical practices have seen a huge reduction in deaths caused by heart attacks，stroke and other cardiovascular（心血管的） problems．
However，heart disease remains Britain's biggest killer．
The new study，by experts at Oxford University，shows there has been a 44.4percent drop in death rates among men in the UK and a 43.6percent drop among women linked to heart problems in the ten years to 2011．
The team compared death rate associated with cardiovascular disease across Europe．They found that Britain has one of the best records in Europe，with 342deaths as a result of heart disease per 100，000men in 2011，and 232per 100，000women．
Some nations﹣﹣﹣including Ukraine，Macedonia and Moldova﹣see more than 1，000heart deaths per 100，000of the population．
Overall，heart disease causes 45percent of all deaths across Europe，but only 27percent in the UK．The study，led by Dr Nick Townsend，showed that cardiovascular disease is mainly a disease of old age．
But researchers said that across Europe it still causes more than 1.4million deaths in those aged under 75and nearly 700，000deaths in under 65s．Dr Townsend said："Cardiovascular disease results in 49percent of deaths among women and 41per cent among men．"
5．From the text we can know ．
A．heart disease no longer threatens the British
B．the heart death rate among British men is lower than among women
C．the old mainly dies of stroke in Europe
D．the heart death rate in Ukraine is higher than in Britain
6．What does the underlined word"it"in the last paragraph refer to？
7．How does the author support his idea？
A．By analyzing data．
B．By following processes．
C．By describing his own experiences．
D．By discussing research experiments．
8．Where is the text most likely to have been taken from？
A．A speech B．A story
C．A scientific study D．A personal diary．
Cell phones：Is there a cancer link？
Could your cell phone give you cancer？Whether it could or not，some people are worrying about the possibility that phones，power lines and Wi﹣Fi could be responsible for a range of illnesses，from rashes to brain tumors．
Some say there is evidence to support the growing anxieties．David Carpenter，a professor of environmental health sciences at the university at Albany，in New York，thinks there's a greater than 95percent chance that power lines can cause childhood leukemia （白血病）．Also there's a greater than 90percent chance that cell phones can cause brain tumors．"It's apparent now that there's a real risk，"said Carpenter．
But others believe these concerns are not justified．Dr Martha Linet，head of radiation epidemiology （流行病学） at the US National Cancer Institute，has looked at the same research as Carpenter but has reached a different conclusion．"I don't support warning labels for cell phones，"said Linet．"We don't have the evidence that there's much danger．"
Studies so far suggest a weak connection between EMFs （电磁场） and illness﹣so weak that it might not exist at all．A multinational investigation of cell phones and brain cancer，in 13countries outside the US，has been underway for several years．It's funded in part by the European Union，in part by a cell phone industry group．The final report should come out later this year，but data so far don't suggest a strong link between cell phone use and cancer risk．
42．From the passage we can learn that some people are worried because ．
A．they have evidence that the use of cell phones can lead to cancer
B．they feel surprised and alarmed about cell phone use
C．some experts have given a warning
D．cell phones are responsible for brain tumors
43．By saying"I don't support warning labels for cell phones，"Dr Martha Linet has the idea that ．
A．the worrying is unnecessary
B．cancer﹣warning labels should be on cell phones
C．there is a link between cell phones and cancer
D．cell phones have nothing to do with cancer
44．Which of the following best describes the attitude of the author towards the debate？
45．The underlined word"justified"in Paragraph 3is closest in meaning to ．
When looking for diet plans to gain muscle there are some great tips that can help you to ensure that you are eating to help you build the muscle that you want. Your diet is just as important as exercise when you attach importance to your diet, it can help you to reach your goal much faster.
You will find that you will eat lean meat almost daily. If you eat meat each day this can help you to keep your figure. The trick with beef is to find lean cuts and this is something that can provide you with protein. Fish and turkey will also be included in the diet. Chicken has some rules and you should always eat skinless and avoid frying.
Fiber is something that is not talked much about when looking for a muscle building diet, but this is basis part of the muscle building diet. Fiber has many benefits and will aid in digestion and help you to feel full. Oatmeal (燕麦片) is a great source of fiber, but you should avoid the premade oatmeal. Fruit and vegetables contain a lot of fiber and this can also aid in weight loss if this is a problem you are working on.
If you want to complete your workout more effectively, you need to make sure that you are drinking adequate amount of water each day. Your body is made up of water and you need to replenish (补充) this water source each day in order to be in the best shape. If you are completing a very intense workout, you will need to make sure that you are drinking even more water to stay hydrated(含水的).
When protein(乳清蛋白质) is a great way for busy individuals to get the protein they need on the go. You will use soy and tofu for sources of protein if you do not eat meat and this can be a wonderful alternative.
There are diet plans to gain muscle for every category. You can make minor adjustments to your diet that can have some great benefits.
21. What’s the best title of the passage?
A. Proper diets can help build your muscle B. The diet is not as important as exercise
C. Diet plans are very important D. Paying attention to your diet
22. When you eat chicken, you should always_______.
A. eat chicken with skin B. eat baked chicken
C. not eat chicken with skin and the fried D. not eat boiled chicken
23. What’s the main idea of Paragraph3?
A. Oatmeal is a great source of fiber B. Fruit and vegetables contain a lot of fiber
C. Losing weight needs fiber D. The function of fiber
A new international study shows that some people's biological clock plays a powerful role for their life expectancy, regardless of lifestyle choices.
Published in the latest issue of Aging on Wednesday, the study has found the most definitive evidence to explain why some people keep healthy lifestyle but die younger than others.
Geneticist Steve Horvath from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), led a team of 65 scientists around the world to record age-related changes to human DNA, analyse blood samples collected from 13,000 people and estimate their lifespan.
A higher biological age, regardless of actual age, consistently predicts an earlier death, the study says.
"You get people who are vegan, sleep 10 hours a day, have a low-stress job, and still end up dying young," Horvath said in a statement. "We have shown some people have a faster innate aging rate."
The findings discovered that 5 percent of the population ages at a faster biological rate, which translated to a roughly 50 percent higher than average risk of death at any age.
"The great hope is that we find anti-aging interventions that would slow your innate aging rate," Horvath said, adding that "this is an important milestone to realizing this dream."
24. Some people keep healthy lifestyle but die younger than others because ______.
A. their biological clock is not powerful enough
B. the most definitive evidence has been found
C. they have a higher actual age than others
D. they ages at a relatively faster biological rate
25. How was the study conducted?
A. By collecting and analyzing data
B. By interviewing lots of people
C. By researching previous studies
D. By studying different lifestyles
26. According to the study, it can be inferred that ______.
A. people who keep healthy lifestyle tend to live longer
B. people’s lifespan can be predicted by their age
C. 5 percent of people are believed to have a faster innate aging rate
D. anti-aging interventions have proved to slow the innate aging rate
27. Which of the following would be the best title for the passage?
A. We all should keep healthy lifestyle
B. Geneticist finds anti-aging interventions
C. Biological clock predicts life expectancy
D. Horvath builds an important milestone
Attitude is an internal（内在的）state that influences the choices of personal action made by the individual. Some researchers consider that attitudes come from differences between beliefs and ideas; others believe that attitudes come from emotional states. Here, we focus on the effects of attitudes upon behavior, that is, upon the choices of action made by the individual.
The kinds of actions taken by human beings are obviously influenced greatly by attitudes. Whether one listens to classical music or rock, whether one obeys the speed limit while driving, whether one encourages one’s husband or wife to express his or her own ideas----all are influenced by attitudes. These internal states are acquired throughout life from situations one is faced with in the home, in the streets, and in the school.
Of course, the course of action chosen by an individual in any situation will be largely determined by the particulars of that situation. An individual who has a strong attitude of obeying laws may drive too fast when he is in a hurry and no police cars in sight. A child who has a strong attitude of honesty may steal a penny when she thinks no one will notice. But the internal state which remains unchanged over a period of time, and which makes the individual behave regularly in a variety of situations, is what is meant by an attitude.
Attitudes are learned in a variety of ways. They can result from single incidents , as when an attitude toward snakes is acquired by an experience in childhood at the sudden movement of a snake. They can result from the individual’s experiences of success and pleasure, as when someone acquires a positive attitude toward doing crossword puzzles by being able to complete some of them. And frequently, they are learned by copying other people’s behavior, as when a child learns how to behave toward foreigners by observing the actions of his parents. Regardless of these differences, there is something in common in the learning and modification(修正) of attitudes.
32.According to the passage, we know attitudes _________.
A. are largely affected by one’s behavior
B. come from different situations in one’s life
C. remain unchanged in one’s daily life
D. could be chosen according to one’s will
33.Which of the following is TRUE about the learning of attitudes?
A. Attitudes are only learned through one’s success.
B. Copying others’ behavior is not a good idea.
C. Attitudes can be learned from one’s parents.
D. Attitudes learned in danger will last longer.
34. The author uses the examples in Paragraph 3 to show____________.
A. particulars of a situation may influence an individual’s action
B. people with good attitudes may sometimes do bad deeds
C. an individual may change his or her attitude fairly easily
D. people often make mistakes when they are not noticed
35. Which of the following can be learned from the passage?
A. Researchers believe that attitudes only come from emotional states.
B. Attitudes have a bad influence on actions.
C. An honest child won’t steal a penny.
D. Attitudes can be learned either by one’s experience or by observing the actions of others.
Since the 1970s，scientists have been searching for ways to link the brain with computers．Brain﹣computer interface（BCI） technology could help people with disabilities to send orders to machines．
Recently，two researchers，Jose Milan and Michele Tavella from the Federal Polytechnic school in Lausanne，Switzerland，showed a small robotic wheelchair directed by a person's thoughts．
In the laboratory，Tavella operated the wheelchair just by thinking about moving his left or right hand．He could even talk as he watched the vehicle and guided it with his thoughts．
"Our brain has billions of nerve cells．These send signals through the spinal cord （脊髓）to the muscles to give us the ability to move．But spinal cord injuries or other cases can prevent these weak signals from reaching the muscles，"Tavella says．"Our system allows disabled people to communicate with the outside world and also to control machines．"
The researchers designed a special cap for the user．This cap picks up the signals from the scalp（头皮） and sends them to a computer．The computer interprets the signals and commands the robotic wheelchair．The wheelchair also has two cameras that identify objects in its path．They help the computer react to commands from the brain．
Prof．Milan，the team leader says his team has set two goals．One is testing with real patients，so as to prove that this is a technology they can benefit from．And the other is to guarantee that they can use the technology over long periods of time．
12．How did Tavella operate the wheelchair in the laboratory？
A．By controlling his muscles．
B．By talking to the machine．
C．By moving his hand．
D．By using his mind．
13．Which of the following shows the path of the signals described in Paragraph 5？
14．The team will test with real patients to ．
A．make profits from them
B．prove the technology useful to them
C．make them live longer
D．learn about their physical condition
15．Which of the following would be the best title for the text？
A．Switzerland，the BCI Research Center
B．New Findings About How the Human Brain Works
C．BCI Could Mean More Freedom for the Disabled
D．Robotic Vehicles Could Help to Cure Brain Injuries．
Modern inventions have speeded up people's lives amazingly．Motor﹣cars cover a hundred miles in a little more than an hour．Aircrafts cross the world a day，while computers operate at a lightning speed．Indeed，this love of speed seems never﹣ending．Every year motor﹣cars are produced which go even faster and each new computer boasts （吹嘘）of saving precious seconds in handling tasks．
All this saves time，but at a price．When we lose or gain half a day in speeding across the world in an airplane，our bodies tell us so．We get the uncomfortable feeling known as jet﹣lag（时差）； our bodies feel that they have been left behind in another time zone．Again，spending too long at computers results in painful wrists and fingers．Mobile phones also have their dangers according to some scientists； too much use may transmit harmful radiation into our brains，a consequence we do not like to think about．
However，what do we do with the time we have saved？Certainly not relax，or so it seems．We are so accustomed to constant activity that we find it difficult to sit and do nothing，or even just one thing at a time．Perhaps the days are long gone when we might listen quietly to a story on the radio，letting imagination take us into another world．
There was a time when some people's lives were devoted simply to the cultivation of the land or the care of cattle．No multi﹣tasking there； their lives went on at a much gentler pace，and in a familiar pattern．There is much that we might envy about a way of life like this．Yet before we do so，we must think of the hard tasks our ancestors faced：they farmed with bare hands，often lived close to hunger，and had to fashion tools from wood and stone．Modern machinery has freed people from that primitive existence．
8．The new products become more and more time﹣saving because ．
A．our love of speed seems never﹣ending
B．time is limited
C．the prices are increasingly high
D．the manufacturers boast a lot
9．What does"the days"in Paragraph 3refer to？
B．Simple life in the past
C．Times of inventions
D．Time for constant activity
10．What is the author's attitude towards the modern technology？
11．What does the passage mainly discuss？
A．The present and past times
B．Machinery and human beings
C．Imaginations and inventions
D．Modern technology and its influence．
As the proverb goes，man struggles upwards； water flows downwards．Water runs downhill from mountaintops to streams，to rivers and to oceans．But downhill isn't the only way that water moves．A new study measures how water travels from country to country for human consumption．This flow isn't the type we usually think about．These scientists looked at the water used to grow and make the products which get shipped from nation to nation as imports or exports．They call this a flow of"virtual water"．
We typically think about water as the liquid that flows from a tap．However，92%of the water used by people goes into growing crops，according to a water researcher Arjen Hoekstra．He recently studied the hidden travels of virtual water used in products made from things like crops and meats．These products are shipped around the world．
For example，consider a sugary soft drink．Hoekstra estimated that to produce one half﹣liter of the drink requires between 170and 310liters of water﹣about 95% is used to grow and process the ingredients（原料）．Another 4% goes into the packaging and labeling．In Hoekstra's calculation，when one country produces a half﹣liter of soda and sells it abroad，it exports as much virtual water as would fill a large refrigerator．
According to Hoekstra's new report，dry countries like Israel and Kuwait，both in the Middle East，get the majority of their virtual water from other countries，through imported products．More surprisingly，some wetter countries，like the Netherlands and the United Kingdom，also get the majority of their virtual water from other places．That means that most of the water used to grow or produce the products and food consumed in those countries came from other countries．
25．The proverb in Paragraph One is used to ．
A．inspire readers to struggle upward
B．tell a law of nature
C．introduce the topic of the passage
D．summarize the main idea of the passage
26．In which countries does most part of virtual water come from outside？ ．
A．The United Kingdom and China
B．America and Israel
C．The Netherlands and Kuwait
D．The Netherlands and America
27．What can be a suitable title for the passage？
A．Benefits of Virtual Water
B．Hidden Uses of Water
C．Crops and Virtual Water
D．Water's Worldwide Travels
28．Where does the passage probably come from？
A．A science news report．
B．A newspaper advertisement．
C．A book review．
D．A science fiction story．
If you think a high﹣factor sunscreen （防晒霜） keeps you safe from harmful rays，you may be wrong．Research in this week's Nature shows that while factor 50reduces the number of melanomas （黒瘤） and delays their occurrence，it can't prevent them．Melanomas are the most aggressive skin cancers．You have a higher risk if you have red or blond hair，fair skin，blue or green eyes，or sunburn easily，or if a close relative has had one．Melanomas are more common if you have periodic intense exposure to the sun．Other skin cancers are increasingly likely with long﹣term exposure．
There is continuing debate as to how effective sunscreen is in reducing melanomas﹣﹣﹣the evidence is weaker than it is for preventing other types of skin cancer．A 2011Australian study of 1，621people found that people randomly selected to apply sunscreen daily had half the rate of melanomas of people who used cream as needed．A second study，comparing 1，167people with melanomas to 1，101who didn't have the cancer，found that using sunscreen routinely，alongside other protection such as hats，long sleeves or staying in the shade，did give some protection．This study said other forms of sun protection﹣﹣﹣not sunscreen﹣﹣﹣seemed most beneficial．The study relied on people remembering what they had done over each decade of their lives，so it's not entirely reliable．But it seems reasonable to think sunscreen gives people a false sense of security in the sun．
Many people also don't use sunscreen properly﹣﹣﹣applying insufficient amounts，failing to reapply after a couple of hours and staying in the sun too long．It is sunburn that is most worrying﹣﹣﹣recent research shows five episodes of sunburn in the teenage years increases the risk of all skin cancers．
The good news is that a combination of sunscreen and covering up can reduce melanoma rates，as shown by Australian figures from their slip﹣slop﹣slap campaign．So if there is a heat wave this summer，it would be best for us，too，to slip on a shirt，slop on （抹上） sunscreen and slap on a hat．
12．What does the research in Nature say about a high﹣factor sunscreen？
A．It is ineffective in preventing melanomas．
B．It is ineffective in case of intense sunlight．
C．It is ineffective with long﹣term exposure．
D．It is ineffective for people with fair skin．
13．What do we learn from the 2011Australian study of 1，621people？
A．Sunscreen should be applied alongside other protection measures．
B．High﹣risk people benefit the most from the application of sunscreen．
C．Irregular application of sunscreen does women more harm than good．
D．Daily application of sunscreen helps reduce the incidence of melanomas．
14．What does the author say about the second Australian study？
A．It misleads people to rely on sunscreen for protection．
B．It helps people to select the most effective sunscreen．
C．It is not based on direct observation of the subjects．
D．It confirms the results of the first Australian study．
15．What does the author suggest to reduce melanoma rates？
A．Using both covering up and sunscreen．
B．Staying in the shade whenever possible．
C．Using covering up instead of sunscreen．
D．Applying the right amount of sunscreen．
An American psychotherapist (理疗家) Glenn Doman wrote a best-selling book called How to Teach Your Baby to Read in 1963. Now translated into 17 languages, this book arose from his work with brain-damaged children in Pennsylvania. Doman and his team of specialists had wondered why brain-injured children didn't improve with treatment. Then they realized that orthodox(传统的) methods of treatment only relieved the symptoms, not the problem, which of course was the brain itself. So they develop a new approach. "All we do for all the children here is to give them visual, auditory (听觉的) and tactile (触觉的) stimulation with increased frequency, intensity and duration, in recognition of the orderly way in which the brain grows," says Doman. "The result was that by 1960 we had hundreds of severely brain-injured two-year-olds who could read and understand." The team had discovered that even children who had half their brains removed could, by stimulation, achieve higher IQs than the average normal child.
Then the team began to think if such amazing results could be achieved with brain-damaged children, what would happen if the same treatment were given to normal children? So eight years ago the Better Baby Institute was opened for the benefit of normal children. The same stimulating environment was provided, and by the time the children left, around seven years old, they could generally speak and read three foreign languages, play a musical instrument, read three full-length (标准长度的) books a week and do all the other things that a so-called "normal" child could do.
In Doman's view, the child's passion to learn during the years up to six must be fed. He believes that, like muscles, the brain develops with use, especially so in those first few years.
Nowadays, parents come from all over the world to Pennsylvania to see and learn from the work
of Doman and his team; they want to discover how they can fulfill their roles as nature's teachers, by using their love, understanding and instincts for the benefit of the children. For in the words of Doman, "every child born has a greater potential intelligence than Leonardo da Vinci used".
11. Glenn Doman discovered in his research that brain-damaged children improved then they ____.
A.got the right treatment
B.were taught to read and understand
C.could speak several languages
D.got relief of their symptoms
12. The passage suggested that Doman's new approach was to _____.
A.give shorter periods of decreased stimulation
B.increase the number of types of stimulation
C.decrease the time between the periods of stimulation
D.intensify the shorter periods of stimulation
13. From the information given in the text, we can assume that _____ .
A.brain-damaged children generally have high IQs
B.children with only half a brain are more intelligent
C.brain-damaged children can overcome their disability
D.most normal two-year old children can read
14. At the Better Baby Institute ______.
A.unnatural development of children was achieved
B.children developed at a normal standard rate
C.the idea of "normal" achievement was challenged
D.children needed seven years to develop normality
15. Parents come to the Institute because they want _____.
A.their children to become as intelligent as Leonardo da Vinci
B.to learn how to teach their children about nature
C.to develop their own abilities to help their children
D.their children to develop instincts of love and understand