• 难度: 使用次数:2 入库时间:2017-06-20

    Population Change

    Why is the world’s population growing? The answer is not what you might think. The reason for the explosion is not that people have been reproducing like rabbits, but that people have stopped dropping dead like flies. In 1900, people died at the average age of 30. By 2000 the average age was 65. But while increasing health was a typical feature of the 20th century, declining birth rate could be a defining one of the 21st.

    Statistics show that the average number of births per woman has fallen from 4.9 in the early 1960s to 2.5 nowadays. Furthermore, around 50% of the world’s population live in regions where the figure is now below the replacement level(i.e.2.1 births per woman)and almost all developed nations are experiencing sub-replacement birth rate. You might think that developing nations would make up the loss(especially since80% of the world’s people now live in such nations), but you’d be wrong. Declining birth rate is a major problem in many developing regions too, which might cause catastrophic global shortages of work force within a few decades.

    A great decline in young work force is likely to occur in China, for instance. What does it imply? First, China needs to undergo rapid economic development before a population decline hits the country. Second, if other factors such as technology remain constant, economic growth and material expectations will fall well below recent standards and this could invite trouble.

    Russia is another country with population problems that could break its economic promise. Since 1992 the number of people dying has been bigger than that of those being born by a massive 50%,Indeed official figures suggest the country has shrunk by 5% since 1993 and people in Russia live a shorter life now than those in 1961.Why is this occurring? Nobody is quite sure, but poor diet an above all long-time alcoholism have much to do with it. If current trends don’t bend. Russia’s population will be about the size of Yemen’s by the year 2050.

    In the north of India, the population is booming due to high birth rates, but in the south, where most economic development is taking place, birth rate is falling rapidly. In a further twist, birth rate is highest in poorly educated rural areas and lowest in highly educated urban areas. In total, 25% of India’s working-age population has no education. In 2030, a sixth of the country’s potential work force could be totally uneducated.

    One solution is obviously to import foreign workers via immigration. As for the USA, it is almost unique among developed nations in having a population that is expected to grow by 20% from 2010-2030. Moreover, the USA has a track record of successfully accepting immigrants. As a result it’s likely to see a rise in the size of its working-age population and to witness strong economic growth over the longer term.

    答案

    ^cooco.net.cn 试题Net中心d
    【答案】

    71. lower

    72. size/scale

    73. immediate

    74. economic

    75. old/older

    76. earlier

    77. living/life

    78. equality

    79. immigration

    80. compensate

    72.size/scale信息归纳题。根据第二段almost all developed nations are experiencing sub-replacement birth rate可知,发达国家人口出生率正在下降,即人口难以维持现有的规模,“maintain”一词是做题的依据,故填size/scale

    73.immediate信息归纳题。根据第二段which might cause catastrophic global shortages of work force within a few decades中的within a few decades可知,出生率的下降对发展中国家和全球的消极影响还没有发生,由此联想到影响不是立即产生的

    74.economic貌似信息查找题,其实还是信息归纳题。接下来几段分别讲了中国、俄罗斯、印度的人口与经济的问题,根据economic development before a population decline hits the country可知答案。

    75.old/older信息归纳题。根据A great decline in young work force is likely to occur in China可知,中国可能会迎来年轻劳动力的危机,就现在而言,中国的劳动力正在“老化”,故填older

    76.earlier信息归纳题。根据the country has shrunk by 5% since 1993 and people in Russia live a shorter life now than those in 1961...but poor diet an above all long-time alcoholism have much to do with it可知,俄罗斯人口由于缩短的寿命而急剧下降。

    77.living/life信息归纳题。如果俄罗斯人改变他们的生活方式,他们的情况可能会好一些。

    【名师点睛】

    任务型读写题中的阅读能力同样要求考生在有限的时间内快速领会文章 的主旨大意,快速理解句段细节意义和理清上下文的逻辑关系,要能够理解文章作者的观点、态度和意图,同时不能忽视对语篇的整体把握和领悟。考查题型分为以下三类:

    1.信息筛选题:信息筛选题是基础题目,一般可以直接通过将表格和短文进行对照,边读文章边找出与试题相关的句子信息,获取到相关单词,有时试题和原文句型句式不同,需进行简单的逻辑推理然后找到相应单词,不需变化,直接填入。例如第7479题。

    2.整合转换题:整合转换题是典型的二次加工题型,需要考生有基本的构词法知识,对句子成分和词性的对应关系要明确。做题时不仅需要找到与试题相关的语句,还要根据词法和句法知识以及上下文的逻辑关系进行加工,从而提炼出新词。可细分为如下两种情况:

    1)词形整合转换。被考查单词在原文和试题中充当的句子成分不同,因而需要在名词、动词、形容词、副词等之间进行转换。例如第7678题。

    2)句型整合转换。试题中的被考查单词在原文中找不到同根词,无法获取单词进行转换,需根据原文中相应句子的意义和上下文逻辑联系进行句型转换。例如第717273题。

    ①表格内词性、大小写和语法运用上要保持一致。同一单元格要注意在用词方面保持一致的格式。

    ②善用同义词和反义词进行转换。

    ③正确使用构词法。

    ④熟练运用语法句型转换。

    3.综合概括题:综合概括题要求考生对全文或段落进行总体语篇把握,通过观察表格的设置特点,从而归纳和概括出所考查的单词。此类设题一般位于表格的第一行或第一列。为了更快捷地掌握概括能力,总结和熟记一些概括性词汇及其固定搭配也是很有必要的。例如75题。

    基本的概括性词汇有:

    总结、概括:conclusion, summary

    建议:suggestion, tip, advice, proposal, recommendation 

    影响:effect, influence, impact 印象:impression

    因果:reason, cause; result, consequence

    考点:考查任务型阅读



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