It has become a certain belief among the public----drink at least eight glasses of water a day to improve health and wellbeing. Bottled water companies often repeal it to increase their sales but it is actually a silly idea. There is no evidence to prove the advantages of drinking eight glasses of water a day, scientists say.
The misunderstanding is caused from the suggestion that adults should drink 2.5 liters of water daily, which was stressed by the British Medical Journal in December. The important part of the suggestion that most of this quantity of water is contained in prepared foods, however, is usually ignored.
US researchers who reviewed the evidence concluded that most people do not need to worry about the amount of water they drink every .day. Besides drinking water, they will be getting plenty of liquid（液体）in other ways. Caffeinated drinks such as tea, coffee and cola and alcohol（酒）can help reach the daily total if they don't drink too much, though these drinks help the production of urine (尿). Less well known arc the dangers of drinking too much water, causing water poisoning, low salt levels and even death.
The review of research by Dan Negoianu, from the University of Pennsylvania, found that not a single study included the suggestion of drinking eight glasses of water a day. Although one small study suggested that drinking water could result in fewer headaches, the results were not very important. However, the benefits of drinking some water to prevent a pain in head after drinking too much alcohol are, separately, proved to be true.
No studies showed any advantages to the color of the skin because of the increased water taken into bodies. Dehydration（脱水）can make skin less pleasant, but there was no clear evidence to support the idea that water helps people keep a youthful appearance. The researchers also found no evidence that drinking lots of water does some good to the body's organs（器官）.
28. From the passage, we know that the suggestion about drinking eight glasses of water a day .
A. causes some serious diseases
B. has enough scientific evidence to support it
C. is misunderstood by people in fact
D. was published by the British Medical Journal
29. From the passage we learn that many people don't know that .
A. the production of urine can cause water to lose
B. health can be improved by drinking plenty of' water
C. better skin can result from intake of much water
D. caffeinated drinks can provide the water people need
30. What can be proved about drinking a lot of water according to the passage?
A. Reducing the bad influence of drinking alcohol.
B. Helping to keep youthful looks.
C. Making the body's organs stronger.
D. Causing bad headaches.
31. The writer's main purpose of writing this passage is to .
A. persuade people to drink different kinds of water
B. tell people drinking much water is not as healthy as is considered
C. warn people of the danger of drinking much water
D. help people realize the importance of drinking enough water every day
If you think that running marathons will help you live a long and healthy life, new research may come as a shock. According to a recent scientific study, people who do a very strenuous workout are as likely to die as people who do no exercise at all.
Scientists in Denmark have been studying over 1，000 joggers (慢跑者)and non-joggers for 12 years. The death rates from the sample group indicate that people who jog at a moderate pace two or three times a week for less than two and a half hours in total are least likely to die. The best speed to jog at was found to be about 5 miles per hour. The research suggests that people who jog more than three times a week or at higher speeds of over 7 mph die at the same rate as non-joggers. The scientists think that this is because strenuous exercise causes structural changes to the heart and arteries(动脉). Over time, this can cause serious injuries.
Peter Schnohr, a researcher in Copenhagen, said, “If your goal is to decrease risk of death and improve life expectancy(寿命), jogging a few times a week at a moderate (适度的)pace is a good strategy. Anything more is not just unnecessary, and it may be harmful.”
The implications (暗示)of this are that moderate forms of exercise such as tai chi, yoga and brisk (轻快的)walking may be better for us than “iron man” events, triathlons and long-distance running and cycling. According to Jacob Louis Marott, another researcher involved in the study, “You don’t actually have to do that much to have a good impact on your health. And perhaps you shouldn’t actually do too much”.
32. The underlined word “strenuous” in Paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to “_____________”.
A. hard B. regular C. practical D. flexible
33. The author presents some figures in Paragraph 2 to __________.
A. suggest giving up jogging B. show risks of doing sports
C. provide supportive evidence D. introduce the research process
34. According to the scientists, why is too much exercise harmful?
A. It may injure the heart and arteries B. It can make the body tired out
C. It will bring much pressure D. It consumes too much energy
35. What can be inferred from the next?
A. No exercise at all is the best choice
B. More exercise means a healthier life
C. Marathons runners are least likely to die
D. Proper exercise contributes to good health
When my friend Lesa was diagnosed(诊断) with cancer, another friend and I went to the hospital to spend some time with her. We bought her a small toy and named him Lemon－Aide. We gave Lemon－Aide to Lesa and told her he was to go with her to all of her treatments to remind her that we were thinking of her and caring about her even though we could not always be with her. When the treatments were completed, she said when someone else needed him she would pass him along.
A few months later，much to my surprise, it was me that she passed him to. Lemon－Aide went with me to all of my treatments.
One day while waiting for my doctor I decided we could market the idea to fight cancer. Lesa thought it was a great idea so we founded the organization that came to be known as Lemon－Aide' s Friends, Inc. We designed our organization to remind people fighting cancer that there are people who love and care about them all the time. Today we have totally 5013 volunteers. The money raised is donated to cancer patients who do not have insurance. The Physicians on our Board of Advisors determine how and where our money is donated.
Lemon－Aide is for men, women, and children of all ages and to date has been sent to 34 states and 33 countries to provide smiling support for people fighting cancer. When life gave us lemons we made Lemon－Aide, a soft smiling toy that represents love, support, and encouragement.
24．The author went to the hospital with her friend ________．
A．to operate on Lesa B．to treat her disease
C．to accompany Lesa D．to look after Lemon－Aide
25．Lesa was given a small toy because ________．
A．he represented her organization
B．he could help weaken her pain
C．she would think of her friends
D．her friends tried to comfort her
26．It can be inferred that ________．
A．the author had suffered from cancer
B．Lemon－Aide had suffered from cancer
C．Lesa had recovered from cancer
D．Lemon－Aide learned to look after the author
27．Lesa and the author formed an organization to ________．
A．cure cancer B．raise money
C．help cancer patients D．help their friend
Bad teeth can be painful and even be deadly. Infections of the gums (牙龈) and teeth can release bacteria into the blood system. Those bacteria can increase the chance of a heart attack or stroke and worsen the effects of other diseases. And adults are not the only ones at risk. For example, a 12yearold boy died when a tooth infection spread to his brain in 2007 in Washington. Experts said it might have been prevented had he received the dental care he needed.
Experts say good dental care starts at birth. Breast milk，they say，is the best food for the healthy development of teeth. Breast milk can help slow bacterial growth and acid production in the mouth. But dentists say a baby’s gums and early teeth should be cleaned after each feeding by using a cloth with a little warm water. Experts say if you decide to put your baby to sleep with a bottle, give only water.
When baby teeth begin to appear，you can clean them with a wet toothbrush. Dentists say it is important to find soft toothbrushes made especially for babies and to use them very gently. The use of fluoride (氟化物) to protect teeth is common in many parts of the world. For example, it is often added to drinking water supplies. The fluoride mixes with enamel (釉质)，the hard surface on teeth, to help prevent holes from forming.
But young children often swallow toothpaste when they brush their teeth. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry notes that swallowing fluoridated toothpaste can cause problems. So young children should be carefully watched when they brush their teeth. And only a small amount of fluoridated toothpaste, the size of a pea, should be used.
Parents often wonder what effect finger sucking might have on their baby’s teeth. Dental experts generally agree that this is fine early in life. Most children stop sucking their fingers by the age of four. If it continues，experts advise parents to talk to their children’s dentists or doctors because it could interfere with the correct development of permanent teeth.
Dentists say children should have their first dental visit at least by the time they are one year old. They say babies should be examined when their first teeth appear—usually at around six months.
8．What’s the main idea of the first paragraph?
A．Bad teeth can be a threat to people’s health.
B．Bad teeth come along with other health problems.
C．Tooth infections can spread to brain easily.
D．Dental care should be done at an early age.
9．According to the passage, what is the function of fluoride?
A．Making the surface on teeth much cleaner.
B．Protecting gums from being infected.
C．Keeping holes on teeth from forming.
D．Slowing down bacterial growth and acid production.
10．The underlined phrase “interfere with” in Para.5 probably means________.
A．do harm to B．account for
C．contribute to D．stand for
11．What is the purpose of the author in writing the passage?
A．To warn us of the deadly infections of gums and teeth.
B．To introduce the advantages of fluoridated toothpaste.
C．To draw our attention to the dental care of young children.
D．To present the research results about dental care.
People are overweight for many reasons, the most important one of which is that they eat the wrong foods, get the wrong types of calories per meal, and they also eat meals at the wrong time each day. Food is more powerful than any weight loss pill, because the food that you eat can either make you thin or fat. This is true because your body is like an engine, and it only needs certain foods at certain intervals(间隔) each day.
Low-calorie Diets Do Not Work
The reason people cannot lose weight by starving themselves is that their metabolism(新陈代谢) will detect any major drop in calories and it will then adjust itself by burning fewer calories each day. That is the reason why you can eat 1,000 calories per day and not lose any weight, while your friends can eat 2,500 calories per day and not gain any weight.
Low-fat Diets Do Not Work
Many people in today’s society are buying mostly low-fat or non-fat food at the grocery store. Everybody knows how much fat is inside the food they buy. However, people are getting fatter than ever before by doing this. They are not losing weight by changing to this low-fat lifestyle.
Losing weight has nothing to do with these things. One of the most important things you can do to control your weight is to eat the proper foods, such as fruit and vegetables, eat them at the right time, and exercise every day. If people make this a habit, they will lose weight.
25. What is the main reason why people are overweight?
A. They burn many calories every day. B. They eat the wrong foods at the wrong time.
C. They eat food with lots of calories. D. They don’t take weight loss pills.
26. The article is written in order to________.
A. tell readers not to buy low-fat or non-fat food.
B.tell readers about an important scientific discovery.
C .tell readers how to lose weight.
D. call on people to lose weight and stay healthy.
27. To realize the aim of your weight loss plan, you should_________.
a. do exercise every day b. eat meals at the right time
c. eat fruits and vegetables d. eat low-fat or sweet food
e. eat the proper foods at each meal
A. a, b, c, e B. a, b, d, e C. a, c, d, e D.a, b, c, d
Health experts have long known that vitamin D is important for healthy bones and teeth. It may also help to protect the body against diseases such as diabetes and cancer. And now, researchers say vitamin D might help fight brain diseases called dementia (痴呆).
Dementia is a brain disease that damages thinking and memory processes, which scientists call “cognitive (认知) abilities.” Dementia is difficult to treat. Taking care of someone who has dementia is extremely demanding. And the disease is very frightening to sufferers. Chris Roberts suffers from dementia. He says the worst part of living with this disease was getting lost while driving. “The worst thing that I found was getting lost in the car, not just forgetting where I was going— I wouldn’t know where I was.” More than 47 million people around the world suffer from dementia. The World Health Organization reports that 60 percent of them live in low- and middle-income countries.
We get vitamin D from some foods like nuts, lentils (扁豆) and fatty fish. We also get vitamin D from the sun. But that is not dependable. In some parts of the world, there is not enough sunlight to provide enough vitamin D. Also, sunblock prevents the vitamin from entering the body. To add to the problem, the skin’s ability to process vitamin D weakens as a person ages.
Researchers at Rutgers University in New Jersey are exploring the relationship between vitamin D and dementia. The team recently measured vitamin D levels and cognitive ability in older people. Nutritional sciences professor Joshua Miller led the team. He said cognitive abilities differed among the study subjects. He said tests showed that about 60 percent of the group was low in vitamin D.
32. Which of the following is true about vitamin D?
A. Vitamin D can decrease people’s risk of heart diseases.
B. Vitamin D helps the body fight against cancer.
C. Vitamin D is mainly obtained from the sun.
D. The need for Vitamin D decreases as people age.
33. What does the underlined word “demanding” mean in Paragraph 2?
A. Boring but rewarding.
B. Disturbing and frightening.
C. Disgusting and stressful.
D. Hard and tiresome.
34. What does Paragraph 3 mainly talk about?
A. How vitamin D affects people’s health.
B. Where people get vitamin D.
C. Whether sunlight can produce vitamin D.
D. Why people’s age influences the production of vitamin D.
35. Where can we most probably read the passage?
A. In a travel brochure.
B. In a literature magazine.
C. In a science journal.
D. In a commercial advertisement.
When asked about happiness, we usually think of something extraordinary, an absolute delight, which seems to get rarer the older we get.
For kids, happiness has a magical quality. Their delight at winning a race or getting a new bike is unreserved (毫无掩饰的).
In the teenage years the concept of happiness changes. Suddenly it's conditional on such things as excitement, love and popularity. I can still recall the excitement of being invited to dance with the most attractive boy at the school party.
In adulthood the things that bring deep joy—love, marriage, birth—also bring responsibility and the risk of loss. For adults, happiness is complicated (复杂的) .
My definition of happiness is “the capacity for enjoyment”. The more we can enjoy what we have, the happier we are. It’s easy to overlook the pleasure we get from the company of friends, the freedom to live where we please, and even good health.
I experienced my little moments of pleasure yesterday. First I was overjoyed when I shut the last lunch-box and had the house to myself. Then I spent an uninterrupted morning writing, which I love. When the kids and my husband came home, I enjoyed their noise after the quiet of the day.
Psychologists tell us that to be happy we need a mix of enjoyable leisure time and satisfying work. I don’t think that my grandmother, who raised 14 children, had much of either. She did have a network of close friends and family, and maybe this is what satisfied her.
We, however, with so many choices and such pressure to succeed in every area, have turned happiness into one more thing we’ve got to have. We’re so self-conscious about our “right” to it that it’s making us miserable. So we chase it and equal it with wealth and success, without noticing that the people who have those things aren’t necessarily happier.
Happiness isn’t about what happens to us—it’s about how we see what happens to us. It’s the skillful way of finding a positive for every negative. It’s not wishing for what we don’t have, but enjoying what we do possess.
28. As one grows older, one ______.
A. tends to believe responsibility means happiness
B. associates his/her happiness less with others
C. will take fewer risks in pursuing happiness
D. feels it harder to experience happiness
29. What can we learn about the author from Paragraphs 5 and 6?
A. She cares little about her own health.
B. She is easily satisfied by things in daily life.
C. She enjoys the freedom of traveling.
D. She prefers getting pleasure from housework.
30. People who equal happiness with wealth and success ______.
A. pay too much attention to their right to happiness
B. consider pressure something blocking their way
C. are at a loss to make correct choices
D. are more likely to be happy
31. Which of the following can best explain the main idea of the passage?
A. God helps those who help themselves.
B. Each man is the master of his own fate.
C. Happy is he who is content.
D. Success leads to happiness.
Eating too much fatty food, exercising too little and smoking can raise your future risk of heart disease. But there is another factor that can cause your heart problems more immediately: the air you breathe.
Previous studies have linked high exposure (暴露）to environmental pollution to an increased risk of heart problem, but two analyses now show that poor air quality can lead to heart attack or stroke (中风）within as little as a few hours after exposure. In one review of the research, scientists found that people exposed to high levels of pollutants (污染物）were up to 5% more likely to suffer a heart attack within days of exposure than those with lower exposure. A separate study of stroke patients showed that even air that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers to be of “moderate” (良好）quality and relatively safe for our health can raise the risk of stroke as much as 34% within 12 to 14 hours of exposure.
The authors of both studies stress that these risks are relatively small for healthy people and certainly modest compared with other risk factors such as smoking and high blood pressure. However, it is important to be aware of these dangers because everyone is exposed to air pollution regardless of lifestyle choices. So stricter regulation by the EPA of pollutants may not only improve environmental air quality but could also become necessary to protect public health.
28. The text mainly discusses the relationship between __________.
A. heart problems and air quality B. heart problems and exercising
C. heart problems and smoking D. heart problems and fatty food
29. The underlined word “modest” in Paragraph 3 most probably means .
A. relatively high B. extremely low
C. relatively low D. extremely high
30. What can we learn from the text?
A. Eating fatty food has immediate effects on your heart.
B. The EPA conducted many studies on air quality.
C. Moderate air quality is more harmful than smoking,
D. Stricter regulations on pollutants should be made.
31. The author’s purpose of writing the text is most likely to __________.
A. inform B. persuade C. describe D. entertain
People who are slightly overweight or mildly obese(肥胖的) have a lower risk of early death than normal weight individuals(个人;个体), according to a new analysis of nearly 100 international studies.
The studies, most conducted within the past decade, included about three million adults from around the world. The result of these studies by researchers at the National Center for Health Statistics in Maryland, part of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, shows that slightly overweight or obese people were six percent less likely to die from all causes compared to people of normal weight. But the researchers found that seriously obese individuals were still at a 30 percent greater risk of death compared to healthy-weight individuals.
Study lead author Katherine Flegal says she was not surprised that overweight people would not have a higher death risk. “Because we'd actually already read a lot of this literature and realized that death rates for overweight would be at least not higher than normal[weight," she said. “I guess l was a little bit surprised that it was definitely lower. And l was also surprised that the lower rates of obesity didn't seem to differ from normal weight."
But Flegal stresses the difference in death rates appear to be small between normal-weight people and overweight and mildly obese individuals.
The finding by Flegal and colleagues have raised new questions about the reliability(可靠性)of the so-called "body mass index" or BMI, a measurement of body fat as a ratio(比例，比率)of height to weight, that has become popular in recent years among public health experts to measure potential health risks.
But Heymsfield warns that individuals should not conclude that it's okay to put on extra kilograms, since being at a healthy weight lowers the risk for heart disease and diabetes.
25. Katherine Flegal feels surprised at the fact that____.
A. obese people have higher death rates
B. slightly obese people have lower death rates
C. obese people tend to die early
D. death rates have nothing to do with body weight
26. What do we learn from the fifth paragraph?
A. BMI may not be so reliable.
B. The study provides further evidence for BMI.
C. BMI tells nothing about potential health risks.
D. BMI has been much questioned recently.
27. What can we conclude from the passage'?
A. It's OK to put on extra weight.
B. It doesn't matter if you are slightly obese.
C. Obese people are much healthier.
D. Body weight has nothing to do with death rates.
28. What topic does the passage mainly deal with?
A. Technology. B. Dieting. C. Health. D. Death.
Living near the beach may come with an extra perk (利益): better health. A new study analyzed information from more than 48 million people in England and found that the nearer they lived to the coast, the more likely people were to report good health within the past year.
Living near the coast may be associated with better health because the seaside environment reduces stress, the researchers said. They pointed to another British study that found that people who took trips to the coast experienced more feelings of calmness and relaxation than those who visited urban parks or the countryside.
The difference from living near the coast was relatively small. But a small effect, when applied to an entire population can have a substantial impact on public health ,said study researcher Ben Wheeler of Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry in Exeter, England.
However, it’s too soon to advise people to hit the beach to improve health, Wheeler said. The study only found an association, not a cause-effect link, and it’s possible that other factors could explain the results. For instance, it could be that people who are wealthier, and therefore healthier, are more able to move to desired locations such as the coast, Wheeler said, a phenomenon known as the migrant effect. But the study did find that the association between coastal living and better health was strongest for those living in the poorest areas, which perhaps indicates that wealth cannot explain the results, Wheeler said.
Because the study looked at only England—an island country in which everyone lives within 72 miles of the coast—it’s not clear whether the findings would apply to other populations. Far from England, a health expert not involved in the study said that while the British research certainly doesn’t prove that people’s health and the place they live are linked, it’s possible that proximity to the seas does something for our bodies.
If future studies confirm the results, the next step would be to find out it is what coastal environments that can benefit health. Wheeler said it may then be possible to bring those benefits to people living in other areas, through virtual environments, for instance.
28. We can conclude from the passage that ______.
A. people are encouraged to move to the coast
B. people living near the sea may be healthier
C. people pay increasingly attention to health
D. people are worried about residential environment
29. According to the researchers, living near the sea ______.
A. doesn’t nearly affect the British population
B. can cure some difficult diseases in a way
C. can help get over one’s stress
D. means freeing from sadness or troubles
30. What Ben Wheeler said means ______.
A. the British public health is decreasing
B. concrete evidence favors life near the sea
C. wealthier people are likely to be healthier
D. exact reasons are proposed for further research
31. What does the underlined word “proximity” in the passage mean?
A. being close B. being distant C. being similar D. being opposite
“I’d like to be at a healthier weight,” a friend told me. “But we just don’t have the money to buy expensive diet foods and there isn’t enough money to join a gym.” Many people feel that way — that a healthy diet and exercise plan is out of reach because of their high cost. Don’t lose hope! We’ll be looking at ways to make healthy choices without spending too much money.
First you don’t need to buy the expensive pre-prepared “diet foods.” Back in the early 1970s when I started housekeeping, 90% of the food I bought was ingredients. Very few things were preprocessed (预处理的). Now 90% of the food you find in the store is quick food. That’s a bad thing.
Quick foods like boxed “just add hamburger” meals have had the fiber (纤维) removed to make them faster to prepare. Take a look at the label (标签) on that box. It often has low numbers listed under “fiber” because fiber takes longer to digest. If the low fiber meal is digested, the result is that your body begins to store fat. Besides, your body is short of nutrients (营养物质). You will be driven to eat more to try to make up for the low quality of the food you are eating.
And then there are the chemicals the producers add to the quick meals to make them palatable. If not, the stuff would taste like cardboard and you wouldn’t enjoy it. However, these chemicals certainly aren’t good for your health.
What’s the answer? Buy whole ingredients and give up the expensive, low nutrition, processed foods. Do the cooking yourself and you will have control over what is in your food — and it will cost less, too.
29. People who find it hard to get a healthier weight think _____.
A. they had too much diet food B. they didn’t make a detailed plan
C. they have no time to do exercise in gym
D. they can’t afford diet food and to exercise in gym
30. The author doesn’t like quick food mainly because _____.
A. it contains too much fat B. it makes people eat more
C. it has low fiber D. it takes longer to digest
31. The underlined word “palatable” in Paragraph 4 means _____.
A. fresh B. delicious
C. healthy D. poor
32. The author suggests in the text that people should _____.
A. control the amount of food B. eat more processed foods
C. cook food for themselves D. choose cheap ingredients
There are two types of people in the world. Although they have equal degree of health and wealth and other comforts of life, one becomes happy and the other becomes unhappy. This arises from the different ways in which they consider things, persons, events and the resulting effects upon their minds.
People who are to be happy fix their attention on the convenience of things: the pleasant parts of conversation, the well prepared dishes, the goodness of the wine and the fine weather. They enjoy all the cheerful things. Those who are to be unhappy think and speak only of the opposite things. Therefore, they are continually dissatisfied. By
their remarks, they sour the pleasure of society, hurt many people, and make themselves disagreeable everywhere. If this turn of mind was founded in nature, such unhappy persons would be the more to be pitied. The intention of criticizing and being disliked is perhaps taken up by imitation. It grows into a habit, unknown to its possessors. The habit may be strong, but it may be cured when those who have it realize its bad effects on their interests and tastes. I hope this little warning may be of service to them, and help them change this habit.
Although in fact it is chiefly an act of the imagination, it has serious results in life since it brings on deep sorrow and bad luck. Those people hurt many others; nobody loves them, and no one treats them with more than the most common politeness and respect. This frequently puts them in bad temper and draws them into arguments. If they aim at getting some advantages in social position or fortune, nobody wishes them success. Nor will anyone start a step or speak a word to favor their hopes. If they bring on themselves public objections, no one will defend or excuse them, and many will join to criticize their wrongdoings. These should change this bad habit and be pleased with what is pleasing, without worrying needlessly about themselves and others. If they do not, it will be good for others to avoid any contact with them. Otherwise, it can be disagreeable and sometimes very inconvenient, especially when one becomes mixed up in their quarrels.
32. People who are unhappy _______.
A. always consider things differently from others
B. always discover the unpleasant side of certain things
C. usually misunderstand what others think or say
D. usually are affected by the results of certain things
33. The phrase “sour the pleasure of society” most nearly means “_______”.
A. makes others unhappy B. has a good taste with social life
C. tend to scold others openly D. enjoy the pleasure of life
34. We can conclude from the passage that _______.
A. we should pity all such unhappy people
B. such unhappy people are dangerous to social life
C. people can get rid of the habit of unhappiness
D. unhappy people can not understand happy persons
35. If such unhappy persons insist on keeping the habit, the author suggests that people should _______.
A. show no respect and politeness to them
B. prevent any communication with them
C. persuade them to recognize the bad effects
D. quarrel with them until they realize the mistakes
If drinking coffee or tea has become part of your daily routine, you might wonder what it's doing to your long-term heart health. New research from Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, a journal (期刊）of the American Heart Association, found that high tea consumption and proper coffee consumption may be associated with decreased rates of death from coronary heart disease ( CHD)(冠心病).
The study followed more than 37,000 tea and coffee drinkers over 13 years. Participants completed food recalls to document their typical intake of tea and coffee, and were divided into groups that ranged from light to heavy consumption. Researchers accounted for variables(变量）such as health histories, height, weight, and waist circumference (腰围）and recorded the number of deaths from cardiovascular (心血管的）disease and stroke during the study period.
Overall results showed that consuming more than six cups of tea per day was associated with a 36% lower risk of death from heart disease compared to consuming less than one cup of tea per day. There appeared to be no such protective effect of tea-drinking at any amount for risk of death from stroke. Among coffee drinkers, more proper consumption levels (2-3 cups per day) were associated with the greatest risk reduction for death from heart disease (21% ) compared to drinking less than one cup of coffee per day.
Researchers acknowledged certain inconclusive variables within their findings. For example, the difference between decaffeinated(去咖啡因的）and regular coffee could not be accurately accounted for, nor could specific recommendations be made for type of tea, though due to its popularity in the Netherlands where the study took place, researchers assumed most tea consumption to be black tea.
Furthermore, researchers found that tea and coffee drinkers had opposite lifestyles, with tea drinkers tending to engage in healthy lifestyle habits and coffee drinkers being more likely to eat less healthy and smoke. It was difficult to say with certainty what impact these other lifestyle variables may have contributed to the overall results.
25. What's the conclusion of the study?
A. People should drink tea and coffee as much as possible.
B. Drinking more tea may benefit people with CHD.
C. High tea consumption may reduce the rate of stroke.
D. Coffee consumption has nothing to do with heart disease.
26. Which of the following variables haven’t been considered?
A. Health histories. B. Height and weight.
C. Waist circumference. D. The type of tea and coffee.
27. What can be inferred from the last paragraph?
A. All people in the Netherlands like black tea.
B. Tea and coffee drinkers had a similar life style,
C. Other variables have no effect on the results.
D. There are still something uncertain about the study.
28. Which of the following might be the best title?
A. Why our heart loves coffee and tea, B. Drink more tea and coffee.
C. Heart disease will be reduced. D. An amazing findings about heart diseases.
Each year millions of babies are born too soon and too small. Premature or preterm births mean births at less than thirty-seven weeks.
Prematurity is the leading cause of death in newborn babies. More than one-fourth of the four million newborns who die each year around the world were born too early.
Preterm babies that survive can suffer a lifetime of serious health conditions. The examples include cerebral palsy, blindness, hearing problems and learning disabilities. Families and communities face emotional, physical and financial costs.
Christopher Howson is the vice president for global programs at the March of Dimes. His group and the World Health Organization recently published a report called “The Global and Regional Toll of Preterm Birth.”
Christopher Howson: “Frankly the problem of preterm birth is under-recognized and undervalued. People fail to recognize how serious the problem is. I mean, this report shows that thirteen million babies are born every year preterm, and that over a million of those babies die as a result of being born too early.”
And these are just estimates; the true numbers could be even higher. More than eighty-five percent of preterm births happen in Africa and Asia. Africa has the highest rate, with about four million cases each year.
Christopher Howson says many of the causes of preterm births are related to poverty and weak health-care systems.
Christopher Howson: “For example, the poor overall health and nutritional status of women. A high burden of infectious diseases. A lack of family planning – allowing a woman to decide when to start and end having children. And also the lack of good prenatal(产前) care programs that might identify problems early on in pregnancy.”
Preterm births are a problem not just in the developing world. The combined rate in the United States and Canada is the second highest in the world. Preterm birth rates in the United States have increased thirty-six percent in the last twenty-five years.
This has been largely the result of two reasons. One is an increase in pregnancies among women over age thirty-five. The other is an increase in the use of reproductive therapies（生殖治疗）.
32. This passage is mainly about ______.
A. the causes of people’s bad health throughout the world
B. how to improve people’s health throughout the world
C. premature or preterm births throughout the world
D. Christopher Howson, vice president for global programs at the March of Dimes
33. All of the following are causes of preterm births EXCEPT______.
A. too many deaths of newborn babies B. poverty
C. Lack of family planning D. the lack of good prenatal care programs
34. Which of the following is a TRUE statement according to the passage?
A. Preterm birth rates in developing countries are dropping and they are increasing in some developed countries like the US and Canada.
B. The increase in pregnancies among women over age thirty-five and the increase in the use of reproductive therapies result in the increase of preterm birth rates.
C. Fortunately, many people have already realized the seriousness of the problem of preterm births.
D. Preterm births must be a problem for only poor areas because of poverty.
35. Where can we probably read this article?
A. International news reports B. History and political papers
C. Science magazines D. World trade guides
Eating too much fatty food, exercising too little and smoking can raise your
future risk of heart disease. But there is another factor that can cause your heart
problems more immediately: the air you breathe.
Previous studies have linked high exposure (暴露）to environmental pollution to an increased risk of heart problem, but two analyses now show that poor air quality can lead to heart attack or stroke (中风）within as little as a few hours after exposure.
In one review of the research, scientists found that people exposed to high levels of
pollutants (污染物)were up to 5% more likely to suffer a heart attack within days of exposure than those with lower exposure. A
separate study of stroke patients showed that even air that the U. S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) considers to be of “moderate” (良好）quality and relatively safe for our health can raise the risk of stroke as much as 34% within 12 to 14 hours of exposure.
The authors of both studies stress that these risks are relatively small for healthy people and certainly modest compared with other risk factors such as smoking and
high blood pressure. However, it is important to be aware of these dangers because
everyone is exposed to air pollution regardless of lifestyle choices. So stricter regulation by the EPA of pollutants may not only improve environmental air quality but
could also become necessary to protect public health.
9.The text mainly discusses the relationship between .
A. heart problems and exercising B. heart problems and fatty food
C. heart problems and smoking D. heart problems and air quality
10.The underlined word “modest” in Paragraph 3 most probably means .
A. extremely high B. relatively low
C. extremely low D. relatively high
11. What can we learn from the text?
A. Eating fatty food has immediate effects on your heart.
B. Moderate air quality is more harmful than smoking,
C. The EPA conducted many studies on air quality.
D. Stricter regulations on pollutants should be made.
12.. The author’s purpose of writing the text is most likely to .
A. persuade B. inform C. describe D. entertain
Cell phones：Is there a cancer link?
Could your cell phone give you cancer? Whether it could or not, some people are worrying about the possibility that phones, power lines and Wi-Fi could be responsible for a range of illnesses, from rashes to brain tumors.
Some say there is evidence to support the growing anxieties. David Carpenter, a professor of environmental health sciences at the university at Albany, in New York, thinks there’s a greater than 95 percent chance that power lines can cause childhood leukemia (白血病). Also there’s a greater than 90 percent chance that cell phones can cause brain tumors. “It’s apparent now that there’s a real risk, ”said Carpenter.
But others believe these concerns are not justified. Dr Martha Linet, head of radiation epidemiology (流行病学) at the US National Cancer Institute, has looked at the same research as Carpenter but has reached a different conclusion. “I don’t support warning labels for cell phones, ”said Linet. “We don’t have the evidence that there’s much danger.”
Studies so far suggest a weak connection between EMFs (电磁场) and illness—so weak that it might not exist at all. A multinational investigation of cell phones and brain cancer, in 13 countries outside the US, has been underway for several years. It’s funded in part by the European Union, in part by a cell phone industry group. The final report should come out later this year, but data so far don’t suggest a strong link between cell phone use and cancer risk.
42．From the passage we can learn that some people are worried because________.
A．they have evidence that the use of cell phones can lead to cancer
B．they feel surprised and alarmed about cell phone use
C．some experts have given a warning
D．cell phones are responsible for brain tumors
43．By saying “I don’t support warning labels for cell phones, ”Dr Martha Linet has the idea that_______.
A．the worrying is unnecessary B．cancer—warning labels should be on cell phones
C．there is a link between cell phones and cancer D．cell phones have nothing to do with cancer
44．Which of the following best describes the attitude of the author towards the debate?
A．Optimistic. B．Objective. C．Opposite. D．Casual.
45．The underlined word “justified” in Paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to_____．
A．explained B．confirmed （证实、确认）
C．classified D．restricted （限制）
A car needs oil to run and your body also needs food to work for you. Eating the right kind of food is very important. It can help your body grow strong to take care of what you eat.
There are four main food groups altogether. The dairy group has food like milk, cheese and sour milk. The other three groups are the meat and fish group, the fruit and vegetable group, and the bread and rice group. Each meal should have at least one food from all four main groups. With all these food together, you will be given enough energy during the day.
It is easy to get into bad eating habits. You may eat your breakfast in a hurry to get to school on time. Or you may not have for a good lunch. It may seem easy to finish your supper with fish and chips all the time. But you will find yourself tired in these days and you can not think quickly.
Watching what you eat will help keep your body healthy and strong. It is also to take some exercise. It will help you eat more if you take a walk or play games in the open air. Having a good eating habit with some exercise is the key to your heath.
28. Which of the following is a good eating habit?
A. Going to school without any breakfast.
B. Having at least one food from all four groups each meal.
C. Eating fish and chips for supper all the time
D. Finishing your lunch in a very short time.
29. The underline word “dairy” in the second paragraph means ____
A. the shop that sells milk and butter
B. a farm where cows are kept.
C. the food made out of cows such as milk and butter
D. a place where milk products are made
30. In this passage the writer mainly tells us that ______
A. every people needs food to grow well.
B. taking exercise can keep your body strong
C. enough energy helps people think more quickly.
D. right kind of food with exercise will keep you healthy.
31. The best title for the passage is______
A. A Healthy Diet B. the Four Food Group
C. Your body and Food D. The Key to Your Health
Would you eat a ready meal from the fridge rather than cook from scratch? Have you been doing Internet shopping rather than going to the stores? What can’t you be bothered to do?
A study into how lazy British people are has found more than half of adults are so lazy that they’d use the lift rather than climb two flights of stairs.
Just over 2，000 people were interviewed by independent researchers at Nuffield Health, Britain’s largest health charity. The results were surprising.
About one in six people surveyed said if their remote control was broken, they would continue watching the same channel rather than get up.
More than one third of those questioned said they would not run to catch a bus. Worryingly, of the 654 respondents with children, 64% said they were often too tired to play with them.
This led the report to conclude that it’s no wonder that one in six children in the UK are classified as obese（肥胖） before they start school. Dr.Sarah Dauncey, medical director of Nuffield Health, said, “People need to get fitter, not just for their own sake, but for the sake of their families, friends and evidently their pets too. If we don’t start to take control of this problem, a whole generation will become too unfit to perform even the simple tasks.”
And Scotland’s largest city, Glasgow, was shamed as the most indolent city in the UK, with 75% surveyed admitting they do not get enough exercise, followed closely by Birmingham and Southampton, both with 67%.
The results pose serious challenges for the National Health Service, where obesity related illnesses such as heart disease and cancer have been on a steady increase for the past 40 years and are costing billions of pounds every year.
24. What do lazy British people probably choose to do?
A. Go to stores. B. Catch the lift.
C. Cook from scratch. D. Climb flights of stairs.
25. How many people surveyed don’t play with children because of tiredness?
A. About 333. B. About 419. C. About 654. D. About 1280.
26. What is the potential result of more and more people, including children, getting obese?
A. People will not get enough exercise. B. People will not have enough money.
C. People will not be able to do the easy job.
D. People will not cure themselves of heart disease.
27. What is the author’s attitude towards the finding of the study?
A. Indifferent. B. Doubtful. C. Negative. D. Supportive.
Diet Coke，diet Pepsi，diet pills，nofat diet，vegetable diet....We are surrounded by the word “diet” everywhere we look and listen. We have so easily been attracted by the promise and potential of diet products that we have stopped thinking about what diet products are doing to us. We are paying for products that harm us psychologically and physically(身体上)．
Diet products significantly weaken us psychologically. On one level，we are not allowing our brains to admit that our weight problems lie not in actually losing the weight，but in controlling the consumption of fatty，highcalorie，unhealthy foods. Diet products allow us to jump over the thinking stage and go straight for the scale (秤) instead. All we have to do is to swallow or recognize the word “diet” in food labels.
On another level，diet products have greater psychological effects. Every time we have a zerocalorie drink，we are telling ourselves without our awareness that we don't have to work to get results. Diet products make people believe that gain comes without pain，and that life can be without resistance and struggle.
The danger of diet products lies not only in the psychological(心理的) effects they have on us，but also in the physical harm that they cause. Diet foods can indirectly harm our bodies because consuming(消耗) them instead of healthy foods means we are preventing our bodies from having basic nutrients (营养成分)．Diet foods and diet pills contain zero calorie only because the diet industry has created chemicals to produce these wonder products.Diet products may not be nutritional，and the chemicals that go into diet products are potentially dangerous. Now that we are aware of the effects that diet products have on us，it is time to seriously think about buying them.Losing weight lies in the power of minds，not in the power of chemicals. Once we realize this，we will be much better able to resist diet products，and therefore prevent the psychological and physical harm that comes from using them.
54．From Paragraph 1，we learn that________.
A．diet products fail to bring out people's potential B．people have difficulty in choosing diet products
C．diet products are misleading people D．people are fed up with diet products
55．One psychological effect of diet products is that people tend to________.
A．try out a variety of diet foods B．hesitate before they enjoy diet foods
C．pay attention to their own eating habits D．watch their weight rather than their diet
56．In Paragraph 3，“gain comes without pain” probably means________.
A．losing weight is effortless B．it costs a lot to lose weight
C．diet products bring no pain D．diet products are free from calories
57．Diet products indirectly harm people physically because such products________.
A．are overconsumed B．lack basic nutrients
C．are short of chemicals D．provide too much energy
Healthy Habits, Healthy Body
Feel tired lately? Has a doctor said he can’t find anything wrong with you? Perhaps he sent you to a hospital, but all the advanced equipment there shows that there is nothing wrong with you．
Then, consider this: you might be in a state of sub-health (亚健康)．
Sub-health, also called the third state or gray state, is explained as a borderline state between health and disease．
According to the investigation by the National Health Organization, over 45 percent of sub-healthy people are middle-aged or elderly．The percentage is even higher among people who work in management positions as well as students around exam-week．
Symptoms(征兆) include a lack of energy, depression(压抑), slow reactions, insomnia(失眠), agitation, and poor memory．Other symptoms include shortness of breath, sweating and aching in the waist and legs．
The key to preventing and recovering from sub-health, according to some medical experts, is to form good living habits, alternate work and rest, exercise regularly, and take part in open air activities．
As for meals, people are advised to eat less salt and sugar．They should also eat more fresh vegetables, fruits, fish because they are rich in nutritional elements—vitamins and trace elements—that are important to the body．
Nutrition(营养) experts point out that it is not good to eat too much at one meal because it may cause unhealthy changes in the digestive tract(消化系统)．They also say that a balanced diet is very helpful in avoiding sub-health．
19．According to this passage, which of the following is right?
A．When you are in a state of sub-health, you should stay home and keep silent．
B．When you are in a state of sub-health, you should go to see a doctor and buy some medicine．
C．When you are in a state of sub-health, you should have yourself examined in foreign countries．
D．When you are in a state of sub-health, you should find out the reasons and relax yourself．
20．Middle-aged people may be easy to get sub-health because _______．
A．they have used up their energy
B．they have lost their living hopes
C．they have more pressure in life and work
D．they begin to get older
21．The key to preventing you from falling into a state of sub-health is that you should _______．
A．work hard B．sleep more
C．form good living habits D．take more medicine
22．As for food, experts suggested that _______．
A．we should never eat meat
B．we should have variety of food
C．we should eat less than usual
D．we should have meals without salt and sugar