When you’re climbing up a hill or playing sports,your back is all wet and so is your face.Why?Because you are sweating. 36 When your body gets hotter than that,your brain doesn’t like it.It wants your body to stay cool and comfortable.So the part of your brain that controls temperature sends a message to your body,telling it to sweat.Then sweat glands（腺）in your skin start making sweat.
37 They are all called pores（毛孔）academically.When the sweat hits the air,the air makes it turn from a liquid to a vapor.As the sweat leaves off your skin you cool down.
Sweat is great cooling system. 38 Then you need to put liquid back in your body by drinking plenty of water so you won’t get dehydrated（脱水的）.
Sweat isn’t just wet--it can be kind of stinky,too. 39 It’s the bacteria that live on your skin that mix with the sweat and give it a unpleasant smell.And when you reach adolescence,special hormones affect the glands in your armpits（腋窝）—these glands make sweat that can really smell.Luckily,regular washing with soap and water can usually keep stinky sweat under control.
So don’t sorry about a little sweat - it’s totally normal and everybody sweats.Sometimes too much sweating can be a sign that there is something wrong in the body,but this is rare in kids. 40
A.Sweat by itself doesn’t smell at all.
B.The seat leaves your skin through tiny holes.
C.When people sweat,they lose water in their body.
D.Your body works best when its temperature is about 37℃.
E.If you’re sweating a lot on a hot day or after playing hard you could be losing too much water through your skin.
F.The vapor goes into the air and turns into drops of water when it comes across cold.
G.But if you think you have a sweat problem,talk to your parent or your doctor about it.
You’re growing up. That means you’re probably experiencing lots of changes, all at once. Your body is changing. It might even seem as if your entire self is changing. It can be confusing and even scary. 36 And it’s good!
Growing up means that you can do more, learn more, and start to make your mark on the world. In order for that to happen, your body produces chemicals called hormones that help both body and mind grow. Hormone levels change constantly, rising and falling. 37 But it’s partly to blame for intense emotions, surprising reactions, and mood swings.
Because of the way your brain develops, it is somewhat ruled by emotion now and through your teen years. As a result, growing up can seem like an emotional roller coaster! 38
◆Take care of yourself. If you eat right, sleep enough, and get good exercise, your brain will be much more able to deal with the stress.
◆ 39 When you feel your moods swinging or you’re upset, or confused, some quiet time will allow you to gather your thoughts and get calmer.
◆Practice relaxing your body and deep breathing when you wake up and when you go to bed. 40 Plus, when stuff happens during the day, you’ll be able to calm yourself quickly with a deep breath or two before you react. Your body is changing.
A．Take a time-out.
B．But the truth is, it happens to every teen.
C．Work out regularly to keep physically fit.
D．This changing is needed for your body’s development.
E．It will help you fall asleep—and start the morning right.
F．Here are a few things you can do to make the ride smoother.
G．Usually, these feelings settle down when you realize what is going on.
Did you grow up in one culture, your parents came from another, and you are now living in a totally different country? If so, then you are a third-culture kid!
The term “third-culture kid” (or TCK) was coined in the 1960s by Dr. Ruth. She first came across this phenomenon when she researched North American children living in India. Caught between two cultures, they form their very own. 16 About 90 percent of them have a university degree, while 40 percent pursue a postgraduate or doctor degree. They usually benefit from their intercultural experience, which helps them to grow into successful academics and professionals.
17 In fact many hardships may arise from this phenomenon. A third-culture kid may not be able to adapt themselves completely to their new surroundings as expected. Instead, they may always remain an outsider in different host cultures. Max, for example, experienced this fundamental feeling of strangeness throughout his life as a third-culture kid. 18 While this can be a way to create a network of friends all around the world, it can be difficult for a third-culture kid like Max to maintain close friendships and relationships.
For a third-culture kid, it is often easier to move to a new foreign country than to return to their “home” country. After living in Australia and South Korea for many years, Louis finally returned to Turkey as a teenager. But she felt out of place when she returned to the country where she was born. 19 She did not share the same values as her friends’ even years after going back home.
While a third-culture kid must let go of their identity as foreigner when he/she returns, the home country can prove to be more foreign than anything he/she came across before. The peer group they face does not match the idealized image children have of “home”. 20
As a part of the growing “culture”, TCKs may find it a great challenge for them to feel at home in many places.
A. Yet being a third-culture kid is not always easy.
B. In general, they often reach excellent academic results.
C. This often makes it hard for them to form their own identity.
D. However, their parents can help them see the opportunities of a mobile lifestyle.
E. Their experience abroad helps them to gain a better understanding of cultural differences.
F. Unlike other teens of her age, she didn’t know anything about current TV shows or fashion trends.
G. Additionally, making new friends and saying goodbye to old ones will at some point become routine for a third-culture kid.
Have you ever studied a subject or brainstormed an idea, only to find yourself with pages of information, but no clear view of how it fits together? This is where Mind Mapping can help you.
Mind Mapping is a useful technique that helps you learn more effectively, improves the way that you record information, and supports and enhances creative problem solving. By using Mind Maps, you can quickly identify and understand the structure of a subject. You can see the way that pieces of information fit together, as well as recording the raw facts contained in normal notes. 36 , as they help your mind recall and review.
Popularized by Tony Buzan, Mind Maps abandon the list format of conventional note taking. They do this in favor of a two-dimensional structure. A good Mind Map shows the 'shape' of the subject, the relative importance of individual points, and the way in which facts relate to one another. 37 .
1. Write the title of the subject you're exploring in the center of the page, and draw a circle around it.
2. As you come across major subdivisions or subheadings of the topic (or important facts that relate to the subject) draw lines out from this circle. Label these lines with these subdivisions or subheadings.
3. As you "burrow" into (挖掘) the subject and uncover another level of information (further subheadings, or individual facts) belonging to the subheadings, draw these as lines linked to the subheading lines.
4. 38 .
5. As you come across new information, link it in to the Mind Map appropriately.
39 . Sub-topics and facts will branch off these, like branches and twigs from the trunk of a tree. You don't need to worry about the structure you produce, as this will evolve of its own accord.
40 . If you do any form of research or note taking, try experimenting with Mind Maps. You will find them surprisingly effective!
A. To draw a Mind Map, follow these steps:
B. Mind Mapping is an extremely effective method of taking notes.
C. They help you to associate ideas and make connections that you might not otherwise make.
D. A complete Mind Map may have main topic lines radiating in all directions from the center.
E. Then, for individual facts or ideas, draw lines out from the appropriate heading line and label them.
F. More than this, Mind Maps help you remember information
G. When created using colors and images or drawings, a Mind Map can even resemble a work of art!
Five Things Ambitious People Never Say
◆“I can’t do this－it’s too hard.”
Ambitious people never limit themselves or undervalue hard work with these words. 36 .
◆“I’m not good enough.”
Ambitious people never say they are not good enough. Saying you are not good enough holds you back and makes you easy to quit when things get a little rough. And quitting when things get a little rough is never a good thing. The most successful people in the world are not quitters. 37 . Be confident and believe in yourself, or no one else will.
◆“I won’t make it through the obstacles.”
Challenges and obstacles are tests of your resolve and desire to succeed. 38 . They say they will make it because they know better things lie ahead-the sun always shines after the storm.
◆ 39 .
The only time people won’t take you seriously is if you don't take yourself seriously. Insisting that people won’t take you seriously is an excuse not to do what you know you should do. Ambitious people never say these words. Start respecting yourself and honoring what you do and people will respect and take you seriously.
◆“I’m going to fail for sure.”
40 . It can teach you valuable lessons and redirect you to the right path. Ambitious people don’t say they are going to fail and let that stop them from trying. They challenge the fear of failure by taking calculated risks because they know the only time you are truly defeated is when you don’t try at all.
A. “People won’t take me seriously.”
B. “People think me impossible.”
C. Ambitious people say they can do everything well.
D. Ambitious people never say they won’t make it through the hard times.
E. They are hard workers who believe in themselves and their abilities.
F. Failure is not entirely bad.
G. They tell themselves they can do it.
Writing a news article is different from writing other articles or informational pieces，because
news articles present information in a specific way. 36 And additionally you can exercise your writing skills and convey information clearly and concisely.
1 .Start with the lead.
37 News articles begin with a leading sentence that is meant to grab the readers' attention and interest them. This is one of the most important parts of the piece，so start with the good stuff when writing a news article. Let your readers know what your news article is about，why it's important，and what the rest of the article will contain.
2. Give all the important details.
The next important step to writing news articles is including all the relevant facts and details
that relate to your lead statement. Include the basics of what happened，where and when it took
place，who is involved and why it's newsworthy. 38
3. Follow up main facts with additional information.
After you've listed all the primary facts in your news article，include any additional information that might help the reader learn more，such as contact information，additional facts about the topic or people involved，or quotes from interviews. This additional information helps round out the article and can help you switch to new points as you move along.
A good news article will list facts and information. 39 To attract your readers，you should
provide enough information that anyone reading your news article can make an informed opinion，even if it contrasts with yours.
Congratulate your readers for sticking with you to the end by giving the reader something to
take away，like potential solutions to the problem or challenges expressed in your article.
Make sure your news article is complete and finished by giving it a good concluding sentence.This is often a restatement of the leading statement(thesis) or a statement indicating potential future developments relating to the article topic.
A. These details are important，because they are the central point of the article.
B. It's important to convey all the important information in limited words to your targeted audience.
C. Conclude your article.
D. Begin with a strong leading sentence.
E. Knowing how to write a news article can help you expand a journalism career.
F. Stick to the end.
G. A great news article will be connected with readers on an emotional level.
Rabbits are easy to raise. The long-eared animals are clean and quiet. They do not need a lot of room. And you do not have to spend a lot of money to feed them. 36
One male and two females will produce in a year as many as fifty more rabbits. That is enough to provide a good supply of meat for a family. 37
Rabbit houses are easy to make with wood and wire fencing material. They do not have to be very big. But each rabbit must have its own little room in the house. This is very important. Each room should be about 75 centimeters wide, 60 centimeters high and one meter deep. Fencing is used for the sides and floor of the rabbit house. The holes in the wire fencing should be about one centimeter square. 38 This keeps the rabbit house clean and dry. Rabbits need a lot of fresh air and sunlight. Cover the sides of the rabbit house only to protect it from rain.
39 Feeding containers hung on the outside of the house let the rabbits eat whenever they want. They simply pull the grass and leaves through the holes in the wire fence.
Each room should have fresh water. The water containers should be heavy so the rabbits cannot turn them over. 40
One month after mating, female rabbits give birth to about eight babies. In two months, a baby rabbit should weigh about two kilograms. This is big enough to make a meal for a small family.
A. Rabbits eat mostly grass and leaves.
B. Rabbits are also valuable for their fur.
C. Or you can tie the containers to the wire.
D. Rabbit meat is high in protein and low in fat.
E. Many people enjoy keeping rabbits as friendly pets.
F. Wastes from the animals will drop through the holes.
G. With rabbits, you get a big return from a small investment.
Four ways to be a great roommate
Having a roommate can be one of the best experiences in a boarding school or, easily, one of the worst. 71 Follow these tips to avoid the common mistakes that turn good roommate relationships sour.
Talk things out.
Communication is key. If something happens, sit down with your roommate and have a face-to-face conversation. I've seen roommate relationships fall apart because something happens and, instead of talking to each other, the two start complaining about their roommates behind their backs. 72
Don't expect to be best friends.
Some roommates become the best of friends, and some don't. Don't put pressure on yourself or your roommate, especially when you first meet. 73 And if your roommate doesn't end up being your best friend, don't worry.
Ask before you take.
This applies to food, clothes and anything else. If you want to keep a relationship going, show your roommate that you have respect for what is his or hers by asking first. 74
Clean up after yourself.
This should go without saying. Don't be lazy. Or, at least, don't bury your roommate in your clothes and garbage. Most people I've come across in a boarding school are messy. 75 But being considerate with where you put your stuff will help you avoid conflict.
A. So you need to think twice before you help your roommate out.
B. This creates nothing but awkward situations and unhappiness.
C. Even if you both agree to share everything, you should still ask.
D. You don't have to clean your room and keep it organized all the time.
E. It all starts with you to have a good relationship with your roommate.
F. Sometimes you get stuck with someone who has tons of negative (消极的) energy.
G. Remember, you're trying to make a new friend, not to frighten your roommate away.
Of the many unpleasant emotions we can experience, fear may top the list.
66 Fear can also keep us from pursuing (追赶) the things in life that really matter -- like following our dreams, and developing important relationships. I have some ideas, though, of how to be free from fear.
l Experience fear.
I used to be very afraid of speaking in front of people. I would get sweaty palms and my stomach would be so tied up that I wouldn’t be able to eat. However, each time I spoke, I noticed afterwards that it wasn’t that bad. Things I fear are never as bad in reality as I make them out in my mind. 67
l Create space.
The first and most important step to being fearless is to create some space between ourselves and the emotion of fear. This isn’t reached by ignoring the fear, or trying to talk ourselves out of it. 68 In fact, a recent research shows that by simply admitting the emotion we actually begin to reverse (颠倒) the “fight or flight (逃避)” response in the body.
Once we admit the presence of fear, the second step is to control the breathing so that it becomes slower and gentler. We try to make the breath just a little bit longer, and feel how fear appears in the body. As we pay attention to the physical symptoms (征兆) of fear, we can see fear objectively.
With practice, we can create enough space between us and the emotion of fear so that we’re able to replace a fearful thought with a positive one.
70 For example, before I get up to speak in front of a group of people, I imagine that the audience is positively impressed by what I say and that I manage to complete the speech successfully.
A. Space is created only when we can honestly admit that fear exists.
B. We can imagine a positive result for whatever we’re about to do.
C. Fear, if left uncontrolled, can even destroy our life.
D. So one way to get rid of (排除) fear is to simply push ourselves to do things that we fear.
E. When we can see a positive result in our mind, fear no longer stops us.
F. But fear is more than just physically unpleasant.
G. Control the breath and feel the fear.
Everyone, from homeless people to billionaires, is likely to be influenced by stress; there’s simply no way to avoid it. 36 Here are five powerful tips for ways to kill stress in almost any situation.
Though a lot of stress is psychological, there are also plenty of physical factors that lead to this natural human response to noticed danger. In order to relieve stress, make sure you’re treating your body right. A big part of this is eating healthier. 37 Anyway, adopting an alkaline(碱性的) diet instead of an acidic(酸性的) one is recommended.
Wake Up Earlier
38 However, waking up 15 or 20 minutes earlier each morning may have more benefits than sleeping in. By giving yourself some extra time, you won’t feel quite rushed in the morning, which leads to better preparation and more confidence.
Since you are never going to remove 100 percent of the stress in your life, one of the best things you can do is let it be one of your motivations. This is what stress is designed to do, after all. The psychological and physical reactions brought on by stress are supposed to heighten our senses and empower us to fight off a threat.
Watch a Funny Video
Here is a simple and practical tip: watch a funny video on YouTube. Research shows that seeing something amusing activates the part of the brain that produces calm physiological(生理的) responses. This can lead to less anxiety and more happiness.
Take Walk Outside
Whenever possible, make sure you take your walk outdoors. 40 It can improve energy levels and memory by as much as 20 percent.
A.A number of studies show that spending time in the open is a great way to relieve stress.
B.Diet and relaxation are two important keys to good health.
C.There are no magic“anti-stress”foods.
D.However, there are ways to reduce the amount of stress you suffer from.
E.Keep Positive Relationships
F.Let Stress Motivate You
G.It is certainly true that the more sleep you get, the less stressed you’ll be.
The teenage years can be a very confusing time filled with anxiety, especially in high school. Here are some powerful tips which can help you succeed in the years.
Know yourself and pick a direction. You may be faced with too many choices in your life and it’s unwise to try everything. 36 Consider all the benefits that it brings into your life and then see how you can develop your passion into a possible career option.
Get away from the friends that offer poisonous advice and negativity. There is no place for that kind of behaviour at any stage of your life. 37 This does wonders for self-confidence and overall positivity.
Read as much as you can. 38 Stop spending hours in watching your favorite TV shows and instead use that time to invest in yourself by reading. You’ll notice n a few days how you begin to see things in a different light.
__39 I am 19 years old, so I understand just how much time can be wasted on technology, especially the Internet and cellphones. Once you spend less time doing things that add no value to your life and instead spend that time enriching yourself, your life begins to shape and turn into exactly what you want it to be.
Make mistakes. Look at a mistake you’ve made from every possible angle and take the lessons from it. Your teenage years are meant to be spent getting to know yourself. 40 It’s okay to make mistakes.
A. Try different things
B. Just focus on your favorite
C. Work hard to improve your scores
D. Limit the time spent on social media
E. You can’t achieve this by trying to be perfect all the time
F. Pick up a book on anything that expands your knowledge base
G. And you should value yourself highly enough to get rid of these people.
It’s hard to adjust to(适应) attending a new school. Everything seems new. Making new friends can be hard too because people seem to have formed their own group. The following are some ways to help you make friends at a new school.
Make sure you are kind to whoever you meet at the new school. 36 If you think that you will say something that will offend(冒犯，得罪)them, do not say anything and just nod your head if they talk to you.
Be yourself. 37 If your friends don’t accept you for you, they’re not really friends. Most people belong in a certain group simply because they are being themselves and their unique personalities and interest fall into that type. For example, someone who likes sports may make friends with people who also like sports.
38 Anywhere, in the bathroom, near your locker, or at the water fountain, you can find someone that has something in common with you. All you need is to know how to approach them. Give a smile or say hi. Introduce yourself. Tell them your name and where you’re from. You never know where you can find a nice friend.
39 You can take part in a sports club, an art club or a foreign language learning club. Even if you don’t know anyone there, you’ll all share a common interest, and you can experience people with different personalities from yours that have the same interest.
Figure out who the “mean girls” or the hot-headed jocks”(鲁莽、急躁的肌肉男) are 40 But don’t be mean to them and don’t completely avoid them because they may be nice people. Also stay away from people who are in gangs and do criminal activities.
A. Make the first move.
B. Do something nice for someone.
C. Join after-class activities you like.
D. Make eye contact with other people.
E. Never change who you are to try to fit in.
F .These are the people that you might want to avoid for a while.
G. Make sure to be nice to people of all cultures and backgrounds.
James Cameron was born in a small town in Canada on August16,1954. At 15 he discovered what he wanted to do with his life. 71 The movie was Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey.
Cameron set his hope high. 72 But he didn’t know anything about cinema. What’s more, he lived far away from Hollywood, the place for him to realize his dreams.
___73__ His father told him they would be moving to California and living only a few miles from Hollywood. At that time, he had a great desire to attend film school, but his family couldn’t afford it. So he went to study physics at Fullerton College.
Before long Cameron dropped out of college and began earning his living as a truck driver. But he still hadn’t given up his dream of becoming a movie maker. His first professional film job was an art director in 1980, and in 1984 he wrote and directed the Terminator. 74___ after it came a series of successful science fiction action films.
Cameron now could do whatever he wanted. He had several projects in mind, including Titanic. 75 But it ended up earning almost $ 2 billion. After Titanic, Cameron started making Avatar in 2005. It took his team two years just to do the technical research, but the movie has become another huge success.
A. It was a huge success.
B. He wanted to make movies.
C. Cameron had to face the facts.
D. This movie cost $ 200 million to make.
E. However, Cameron got a lucky break in 1971.
F. It happened one night after he saw a movie.
G. They used high technology to get the effects they wanted.
Basic table manners for teens
Teens should know that table manners are not only about proper eating. ________ (71)
Whether in a restaurant or in a home , here are some basic table manners for you:
§ It’s okay to put your elbows (肘)on the table if you are not actually eating. But if
you are eating , only rest your forearms (前臂) on the table.
§ Eat with a fork unless the food is meant to be eaten with your fingers.
§ Don’t take a mouthful of food.
§ Chew（咀嚼）with your mouth closed. No one wants to see food being chewed up, or hear it
being eaten. ________(72)
§ Always say “Thank you” when you are served with something.______(73)
§ Don’t eat until everyone is served . It shows consideration.
§ _______(74) Someone took a long time to prepare the food, so you should enjoy it slowly.
§ Don’t reach over someone’s plate for something. Ask for the item to be passed to you. This shows consideration, too.
§ _____(75) If it bothers you a lot , excuse yourself and go to the bathroom to take it out.
§ Always use a napkin to clean your mouth, which should be on your lap when you are not using it.
A. This shows appreciation.
B. Eat slowly ,and don’t rush.
C. Only babies eat with fingers.
D. Don’t pick anything out of your teeth.
E. Remember to clean around your mouth only.
F. It’s about being kind and considerate to others.
G. This includes not talking when your mouth is full.
How to be polite
Being polite is a matter of good manners； it's about respect，and being considerate of people's feelings，culture，and values．It does not seem difficult，but for many people it remains a challenge．While some people have no interest whatsoever in manner，if you are reading this you're probably wondering how you can improve your manners．At the very least，you might want to know how to avoid being rude，which can put off the people around you．Being polite is also a good way to make friends．
（61） Loudness either indicates arrogance or insecurity．A charming polite person makes another person feel good．Keep this goal in mind．Be considerate of other people's needs and opinions．Don't make unfavorable remarks towards any kind of ethnic，political or religious groups under any circumstances．
（62） You might want to practice this a bit so you don't squish （攥紧） people's hands，depending on how strong you are．That would make them feel uncomfortable．Beware especially when shaking hands of women who are wearing rings．Too much pressure can be very painful．Remember too that many people with an"old﹣school"etiquette background （especially if you are in Europe） find it inappropriate to offer your hand for a handshake to a lady or an older gentleman if you are a gentleman，or to an older lady，if you are a lady．
（63） Try not to talk about yourself too much﹣if they want to know （or are polite） they'll ask．Be confident and charming．Do not hog the conversation，which is too rude．Look interested and listen to the answers．Don't look over the person's shoulder or around the room when they are talking，or let your eyes linger on the hot new guest who just walked in．That implies that you are distracted or not interested﹣that your conversational companion is not important or interesting enough to bother paying attention to．
（64） Always be courteous （客气的），as you might meet this person again in another setting and wouldn't want to have caused negative memories that would give you a bad standing．If someone annoys or even insults you，don't get into an argument．Say"Let's agree to disagree"and change the subject，politely debate，or simply excuse yourself from the conversation．
（65） For silverware，go from the outside in．Place your napkin on your lap，and do not add anything to the table that was not there when you got there （cell phone，glasses，jewelry）．Put your purse between your feet，under your chair．Women should not apply makeup at the table．It is rude and demonstrates a lack of refinement．If you want to fix your makeup or check if something is in your teeth，go to the restroom．
B．Be aware that manners vary．
C．Know the proper dinner manners．
D．Shake hands firmly and look them in the eyes when doing so．
E．Start a conversation by asking questions about the other person．
F．Have a laugh which shows you are having fun，without being loud．
A．Cosmetics were used in different countries a long time ago．
B．The most widely used cosmetic is probably lipstick
C．Cosmetics were made most use of in Indian．
D．At one time，some cosmetics were not safe．
E．Some people even have cosmetic surgery．
F．The Romans also used cosmetics．
Millions of women use cosmetics，often called‘make﹣up'．The cosmetics industry is one of the biggest in the world．Most large stores sell cosmetics，and there are always shops at airports selling them cheaply．
The word‘cosmetics'refers to anything that people put on their faces to make them look better．Lipstick，face powder and cream，and eye make﹣up are the most popular．Although more women than men use cosmetics，there are cosmetics for men as well as women．
（61） In order to make their faces look different．They have the shape of their noses and eyes changed．
（62） Many women who do not wear any other make﹣up will often put on a little lipstick．Lipstick is made by mixing together different oils and colors．This mixture is then allowed to get hard and is cut into the shape of a small pencil．When a woman presses the lipstick to her lips，the end of it becomes soft，and some of it sticks to her lips，giving them extra color．
（63） Cosmetics were probably first used in India，but it was the Egyptians，six thousand years ago，who made the most use of them．Rich Egyptian women painted their eyes green and black．They used a red color to paint pretty designs on their fingernails，the palms of their hands and the soles of their feet．Pictures of Cleopatra always show her wearing a lot of make﹣up．
（64） They liked to make their skin very white and to paint their eyes．They also used a kind of lipstick．
In England at one time，very rich women had baths in milk to make their skin beautiful．They also used a lot of sweet﹣smelling powder to stop people smelling their bodies，which were often very dirty because they did not wash very often or change their clothes．
（65） They were bad for the skin，and some of the lipsticks and powders that people used were even poisonous．Nowadays，people in the cosmetics industry take great care to make sure that everything they use is completely safe．
A．Control of Respiration
B．Basic Tips for Preserving Cut Flowers
C．Role of Respiration
D．Most Important Aspect of Flower Care
E．Need for Clean Water
F．Ways of Stopping Respiration
While everybody enjoys fresh cut flowers around his house，few people know how to keep them for as long as possible．This may be done by keeping in mind a few simple facts．The key to keeping fresh cut flowers for a week or more without floral preservatives （which contain biocides that kill bacteria and fungus） is to keep the water fresh and the stems free of air pockets so they can continue to draw up water．
An important thing to remember about cut flowers is that they are sensitive to temperature．For example，studies have shown that cut carnations （康乃馨） retain their freshness eight times longer when kept at 12℃than when kept at 26℃．Keeping freshly harvested flowers at the right temperatures is probably the most important aspect of flower care．
Flowers are not intended by nature to live very long．Their biological purpose is simply to attract birds or insects，such as bees，for pollination （授粉）．After that，they quickly dry up and die．The process by which flowers consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide，called respiration （呼吸），generates the energy the flower needs to give the flower its shape and color．The making of seeds also depends on this energy．While all living things respire，flowers have a high level of respiration．A result of all this respiration is heat，and for flowers the level of heat relative to the mass of the flower is very high．Respiration also brings about the eventual death of the flower．Thus the greater the level of respiration，the sooner the flower dies．
How，then，to control the rate at which flowers die？By controlling respiration．How is respiration controlled？By controlling temperature．We know that respiration produces heat，but the reverse is also true．Thus by maintaining low temperatures，respiration is reduced and the cut flower will age more slowly．
Another vital factor in keeping cut flowers is the quality of the water in which they are placed．Flowers find it difficult to"drink"water that is dirty or otherwise polluted．Even when water looks and smells clean，it almost certainly contains harmful substances that can endanger the flowers．To rid the water of these unwanted substances，household chlorine bleach （含氯漂白剂） can be used in small quantities．It is recommended that 15drops of chlorine bleach （at 4% solution） be added to each liter of water．The water and solution should also be replaced each day．
A．Criteria（标准） of the ranking
B．Africa countries ranking low
C．Research on girls'education in developing countries
D．Northern European countries at the top
E．High rate of early death of children
F．Hope and improvement in sight
A yearly list of the best and worst places to be a mother and child rates the United States 11th，behind Britain．Scandinavian countries are at the top．Sweden is number one．Denmark is second．Finland is third．Save the Children，an American﹣based humanitarian organization，compared conditions in 110countries．The report came out last week．
At the bottom of the list，Mali and Burkina Faso share last place．Just above them are Ethiopia，Chad，Yemen，the Democratic Republic of Congo and Mauritania．Gambia and Eritrea are also in the bottom ten，along with two Asian countries：Nepal and Cambodia．Cambodia is tied with Eritrea in 100th place．
Save the Children based its report on six conditions related to the health and security of women．These include the risk of early death，and the rate of use of modern birth﹣control methods．Another measure was the percentage of births with the aid of trained medical workers．Still another was the percentage of pregnant women with a shortage of iron in the blood．The study also examined reading levels among women and the involvement of women in national government．There are some conditions related to the education of both women and children．
Save the Children has published a report on the"State of the World's Mothers"for six years now．This year the group included a progress report on education for girls．Researchers examined progress made over the past ten years in 71developing countries．The report says Bolivia，Kenya，Cameroon and Bangladesh have made the most progress in girls'education．Listed at the bottom are Rwanda，Iraq，Malawi and Eritrea．Worldwide，the report says，58million girls are out of school．
Charles MacCormack is head of Save the Children．He says many children in the world are lucky just to survive the first five years of life．But Mr MacCormack calls the situation far from hopeless．He notes that world leaders have agreed on eight goals to reduce poverty，save lives and increase security by 2017．
Real﹣life Room Escape Games
Real﹣life room escape games are a type of physical adventure game in which people are locked in a room with other participants and have to use the things in the room to settle a series of puzzles，find clues （线索），and escape the room within a set time limit．
The games are based off Escape the Room video games，such as Crimson Room and QP﹣Shot，created by TAKAGISM Inc．by Toshimitsu Takagi in 2005，in which the player is locked inside a room and must explore his or her surroundings in order to escape．（36） Other inspirations include adventure board games and movies．Real﹣life room escape games are becoming popular in the United States，Japan，and China．（37） For example，some games require you escape prison cells while others require you escape space stations．
（38） Soon，they were exported to North America，Asia and Australia．Examples include the two pioneer companies Hint Hunt and Adventure Rooms．
The games were so successful that new locations began opening up across China，in cities big and small，according to Want China Times．In the southern city of Shenzhen，for example，the first escape game location opened last August．（39） "These real﹣life escape games can help those who stay at home on their computers and iPads all day to experience real social circles，"Tian Xiaochuan，who owns two room escape game stores in Jinan，told Want China Times．
Earlier this year，The South China Morning Post said the real﹣life escape games are a hit among"highly stressed students and overworked young professionals．"（40） Some players get so involved that they tear down equipment or decorations inside their"prisons"，as Zhu Yumeng，chief operating officer of Beijing room escape game store Taoquan told China Daily．
A．Each game adds local themes to settings．
B．And seven new game locations quickly followed．
C．They should also be brave enough to face their fears．
D．Sometimes the excitement becomes a bit much，though．
E．Weekend or day event escape games have been held in some stores．
F．Permanent real life escape games in a fixed location were first opened in Europe．
G．Players must be observant and use their critical thinking skills to escape the room．
Paris，the capital and the largest city of the country，is in north central France．The Paris metropolitan area has nearly 20% of the nation's population and is the economic，cultural，and political center of France．The French government have historically favored the city as the site for all decision making，thus powerfully attracting nearly all of the nation's activities．
Paris has grown steadily since it was chosen as the national capital in the late 10th century．With the introduction of the Industrial Revolution，a great number of people moved to the city from the country during the 19th century．The migration was especially stimulated by the construction of railroads，which provided easy access to the capital．After World War II more and more immigrants arrived．
The city is the centralized（中央集权） control point of most national radio and television broadcasting．It is a place of publication of the most prestigious（有威望的）newspapers and magazines and an international book publishing center．With more than 100museums，Paris has truly one of the greatest concentrations of art treasures in the world．The Louvre，opened as a museum in 1793，is one of the largest museums in the world．
In the late 1980s about 4.1million pupils annually attended about 47，000elementary schools．In addition，about 5.4million students attended some 11，200secondary schools．Approximately 1.2million students were enrolled（录取） annually at universities and colleges in France in the late 1980s．French centers of learning have served as academic models throughout the world．
Paris is the leading industrial center of France，with about one quarter of the nation's manufacturing concentrated in the metropolitan area．Industries of consumers goods have always been drawn to Paris by the enormous market of the big population； and modern，high﹣technology industries also have become numerous since World War II．Chief manufactures are machinery，automobiles，chemicals and electrical equipment．
A．The tourism in Paris
B．The Culture of Paris
C．The Population Growth in Paris
D．The Production of Paris
E．The Industries in Paris
F．The Education in Paris
G．The Introduction of Paris．