高中英语 河北省武邑中学2015-2016学年高二下学期周考考试试题及答案之三.doc
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  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2016-05-15
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    ROCK-PAPER-SCISSORS is a game played all around the world. As kids, we have relied on it to settle disagreements with friends – from which channel to watch to who gets to eat the last ice cream – all because we think the results are completely random.

    But are they?

    Wang Zhijian, PhD, a professor at Zhejiang University, believes that there is a regulation behind this simple game. So, he gathered 360 students, divided them into groups of six and had each group play 300 rounds of rock-paper-scissors, reported USA Today.

    After the first results, Wang thought he was wrong, because players chose each of the three moves about one-third of the time, suggesting that the game is random after all. However, Wang later noticed a surprising regulation of behavior in the data.

    When players won a round, they usually stuck to the same choice. But when they lost, they tended to change to a more powerful move. For example, if Player A had just thrown down scissors to beat Player B’s paper, Player A was more likely to throw down scissors again while Player B was likely to choose rock, since rock beats scissors.

    According to Wang, this might be a function that is called “conditional response”. So, for the next step of his study, as he told BBC, Wang plans to do some research about how human brains make quick decisions when competing.

    Now that you’ve learned how to predict the moves of your opponent (对手), you’ll have an advantage next time you play rock-paper-scissors with your friends. But there is one problem: make sure they haven’t read about Wang’s study, or your advantage will disappear.

    21. The underlined word “random” in the first paragraph is closest in meaning to _________.

    A. equal     B. amusing     C. strange     D. unpredictable

    22. Which of the following is TRUE about Wang Zhijian and his study?

    A. He found a new game theory called “conditional response”.

    B. He asked 360 students to play a total of 300 rounds of rock-paper-scissors.

    C. By studying the first few results, he discovered the pattern behind the game.

    D. His study suggests that the belief that rock-paper-scissors game is random is wrong.

    23. According to the study, if player A has just used rock to beat player B’s scissors, then A is more likely to choose _________ and B is more likely to choose _________.

    A. rock; paper    B. rock; scissors    C. scissors; rock    D. paper; scissors

    24. What will Wang study about rock-paper-scissors in the future, according to the article?

    A. The functions related to the game that are planted into our brains.

    B. How human brains make quick decisions when competing in the game.

    C. The psychology behind the players who always win the game.

    D. How to improve players’ ability to predict opponents’ moves.

    题型:阅读理解  知识点:社会现象类阅读
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    IMAGINE this: you come home from school and find that your dog has messed up your bed and eaten the pizza on the table while you were away. You get so angry and start blaming it for what it did.

    While you are doing this, the little “criminal” just sits there quietly, head down, ears back, eyes droopy (下垂的), looking guilty(内疚的). This makes you think that it understands you and you are teaching it a lesson.

    But don’t be fooled by this look – animal behaviorists say that dogs actually lack the ability to feel shame, reported the Associated Press. Instead, they just put on that look so their owners will calm down.

    “My guess is that their thinking is: ‘Oh man, my owner is crazy about something, but I don’t know what, but he seems to calm down when I give him the sad face, so let’s try that again,’” said Pascale Lemire, Canadian author of the book Dog Shaming.

    One of the first scientific studies on the “guilty look” of dogs was conducted in 2009 by Alexandra Horowitz, a professor at Barnard College in the US. In the study, she videotaped how 14 dogs reacted when their owners left the room. When the owners returned, they were asked to scold the dog no matter if they had misbehaved.

    Horowitz found that the guilty look would appear as long as the owner was angry, not when the dog had actually done something wrong, which means the look has nothing to do with guilt.

    So the best way to deal with a dog that has misbehaved is probably to “just get it over and remind yourself not to put some attractions on the table next time”, suggested Beaver. In other words, don’t leave your bedroom door open or the pizza on the table in the first place.

    25. The example given at the beginning of the article is meant to _________.

    A. show the disadvantages of keeping pets

    B. introduce the subject of this text

    C. prove that pets have strong senses of guilt

    D. show how owners should teach lessons to their dogs

    26. The most important finding in Alexandra Horowitz’s research is that _________.

    A. dogs learn quickly from previous punishments

    B. dogs with the guilty look don’t actually feel shame at all

    C. dogs try hard to calm down when their owners get mad

    D. dogs are more likely to misbehave when their owners are absent

    27. According to the last paragraph, the best way to keep dogs from misbehaving is to _________.

           A. make strict house rules for them.

           B. offer better rewards and more serious punishments.

           C. avoid leaving them possibilities to misbehave.

           D. turn a blind eye to their misbehavior.

    题型:阅读理解  知识点:人生百味类阅读
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     Most children are exposed to literature from an early age ,that is , being read books and told stories and, later, kids will go on to read on their own. These stories help children to understand the world, and the characters help teach them how we behave as people. There are several different types of children's literature.

       Picture books are for young children or beginning readers. They can either have just pictures, without words, such as “The Snowman” or have pictures with a small amount of text, like in “Where the Wild Things Are”. Picture books often feature repetitive phrases to help children who are learning to read.

       Fantasy books are any novel that is based on unrealistic(不现实的) events. Fantasy is widespread in children's literature. Perhaps the most famous children's fantasy books of the late 20th and early 21st centuries are the “Harry Potter” novels.

       Realistic children's literature can either be set in contemporary(当代的)times or in the past. As the name suggests, the characters are realistic and the plot line follows something that could actually happen. Realistic historical fiction(小说)uses real events from the past as a basis for the story.

       Traditional literature is the name given to any stories which orally stemmed from and were later written down. These include some fairy tales, folk tales, myths, legends. Traditional literature stories can be found in books, and some are the ones that a parent may tell a child from memory. Some of the best known traditional literature stories include “The Tortoise and the Hare,” “Cinderella,” and “Little Red Riding Hood.”

    28.What do we know from Paragraph 1?

    A. It is forbidden to read to kids when they are small.

    B. It is not a choice to read to kids when they are small.

    C. It is not a good action to develop a reading habit.

    D. It is of great benefit for parents to read to kids.

    Which of the following types do “Harry Potter” novels belong to?

    A. Picture books                          B. Fantasy books

    C. Realistic children’s literature              D. Traditional literature

    According to paragraph 4,realistic historical fiction _______.

    A. tells stories that happened in the past.

    B. tells stories that happened at the moment.

    C. tells stories that happened in the future.

    D. is based on unrealistic events.

    The underlined word “stemmed from” in the last paragraph is closed in meaning to “________”.

    A. started from         B. came over                     C. put on                   D. resulted in 

    题型:阅读理解  知识点:教育类阅读
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    History is full of cases where dreams have been a pathway to creativity and discovery. A striking example is provided by Dr. Otto Loewi, a pharmacologist (药理学家) and winner of a Nobel Prize. Loewi had spent years studying the chemical transmission of nerve impulses (脉搏). A tremendous breakthrough in his research came when he dreamed of an experiment three nights in a row. The first two nights he woke up and wrote down the experiment quickly and untidily on paper. But the next morning, he couldn’t tell what the notes meant. On the third night, he got up after having the dream. This time, instead of making notes he went straight to his laboratory and performed the important experiment. Loewi later said that if the experiment had occurred to him while awake he would have rejected it.

           Loewi’s experiment gives some insight into using dreams to produce creative solutions. Nervous feelings are reduced during dreaming, which may be especially useful in solving problems that require a fresh point of view.

           Being able to take advantage of dreams for solving is improved if you “set” yourself before retiring. Before you go to bed, try to think intently about a problem you wish to solve. Bury yourself in the problem by stating it clearly and reviewing all relevant information. Then use the suggestions listed in the previous section to catch your dreams. Although this method is not guaranteed to produce a novel solution or a new insight, it is certain to be an adventure. About half of a group of college students using the method for a week recalled a dream that helped them solve a personal problem.

    32. The main idea of this passage is that _________.

    A. very little is really known about the meaning of dreams

    B. it is possible to “catch” one’s dreams by planning before going to sleep

    C. dreams can be useful in producing creative solutions to one’s problems                

    D. Loewi’s experiment helped in the study of transmission of nerve impulses

    33. The first paragraph is mainly organized by _________.

    A. classifying types of experiments

    B. summarizing the work of one researcher

    C. comparing and exploring historical cases

    D. telling in time order about one man’s research

    34. If Loewi had thought of the experiment while awake, he would have _________.

    A. asked someone else to do it               B. thought it was a bad idea

    C. tried it out on his own                               D. thought it was a wise idea

    35. The author probably thinks that _________.

    A. nervous feelings may stop someone thinking of useful ideas

    B. dreaming is of very little value to most people

    C. Loewi should not have conducted his experiment

    D. college students should not try out dream experiments

    题型:阅读理解  知识点:历史类
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    Seven ways to find out what you really want in life

    Be good to yourself

    You can’t pinpoint(准确指出) exactly what you want in life .You’re constantly sacrificing(牺牲) your time and dreams for other people.   36   Ask yourself: if you weren’t tied down by your job, family, or anything else, then what would you be doing right now?   

    Regret nothing

    To be good to yourself is not selfish. It’s your life. It’s time for you to live it exactly the way you want to. If you constantly regret things you did or didn’t do in the past, then you won’t be able to move forward.   37       

    Figure out what you need

    Sometimes it’s hard to figure out what you need. Sit down and think about what you need most. The freedom to express yourself? Love? Financial security? Something else? If it helps, you can make a list. Also think about the kind of legacy(遗产) you want to leave behind.

            38        

    You can fly only by pushing back against something you don’t want. Figure out what upsets you, and be specific about it. Don’t just say that you hate your office job. Pinpoint exactly why you hate it. Could it be your strict boss? Your workload? Your meaningless job title? Or all of the above?

    Determine what makes you truly happy

    There’s no life to waste if you’re happy with living it.   39   Being around children? Is it traveling? Owning a successful business? Financial freedom? Once you pinpoint the one thing that makes you happy the most, you’ll have a pretty clear idea of what you should struggle hard to get in your life. Let people around you know what you’re trying to achieve. Don’t keep your goals and desires to yourself. Voice it all out! If you tell people what you’re trying to accomplish, they will most likely support you and give you new ideas. Sometimes mother does know best!

    Stay positive

    Life doesn’t always go how you want it. Don’t feel discouraged as your plans stray(偏离). Take control. Instead of being anxious, try your best to advance with the changes. You will get there someday.  40   You’re just taking a little detour(绕道).

    A. Don’t live in the past but live in the present!

    B. Sometimes a positive attitude is all you need to keep going.

    C. Determine what really bothers you.

    D. Think about what makes you happy.

    E. You have to put yourself first, because if you don’t, then no one else will.

    F. Determine what you are going to do next.

    G. You should think of things carefully.

    题型:阅读理解  知识点:人生百味类阅读
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