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1.

In the fictional worlds of film and TV, artificial intelligence Al has been described as so advanced that it is indistinguishable from humans. But what if we're actually getting closer to a world where Al is capable of thinking and feeling?

Tech company UneeQ is heading for its "digital humans", which appear life like on the screen not only in terms of language, but also because of facial movements: raised eyebrows, a smile, even a nod. They look close to a human, but not quite.

What lies beneath UneeQ9 s digital humans? Their 3D faces are modeled on actual human features. Speech recognition enables them to understand what a person is saying, and natural language processing is used to work out a response. Meanwhile, another Al company, Soul Machines, is taking a more biological approach, with a "digital brain", that imitates aspects of the human brain to adjust the emotions "fblt" and "expressed" by its "digital people".

Shiwali Mohan, an Al scientist at the Palo Research Center, is skeptical of these digital beings. "They're humanlike in their looks and the way they sound, but that in itself is not being human," she says. "Human qualities also involve how you think, how you approach problems, and how you break them down; and that takes a lot of algorithmic ( 算 法 )design. Designing for human-level intelligence is a different attempt than designing images that behave like humans." She then continues, “If something looks like a human, we have high expectations of them, but they might behave differently in ways that humans just instinctively ( 直觉地 )know how other humans react.

Yet the demand is there, with UneeQ seeing high adoption of its digital employees across the financial, health care, and commercial sectors (行业) . "Unless these sectors make their business models much more efficient digitally, they might be left behind," says Chetan Dube, UneeQ9s CEO.

Some other companies are taking their digital beings a step further, enabling organizations and individuals to create digital humans themselves using free-access platforms they provide. "The biggest motivation for such platforms is to popularize Al," Dube says.

Mohan is cautious about this approach, yet she supports the purpose behind these digital beings and is optimistic about where they are headed. "As we develop more advanced Al technology, we would then have to use new ways of communicating with that technology,she says. "'Hopefully, all of that is designed to support humans in their goals."

1 According to Para. 2, in what respect s do UneeQ9s "digital humans" resemble human beings?

A In the way they move around.

B In the way they act and react.

C In observation and analysis.

D In speech and facial expressions.

2 Soul Machines’digital brain is a technological breakthrough because it .

A leams to make proper emotional responses

B tends to imitate human beings' tone vividly

C recognizes the speech sounds it receives

D processes the natural language it hears

3 In Mohan's opinion, what human quality is lacking in digital beings?

A Calculating brain.

B Language skills.

C Instinctive judgements.

D Problem-solving ability.

4 What makes many sectors employ digital humans?

A The fear of falling behind in efficiency.

B The urgency to promote e-commerce.

C The wish to spread digital technology.

D The need to upgrade the health care system.

5 What does Mohan think of the future of digital beings?

A It's well planned.

B It is promising.

C It is uncertain.

D It's quite hopeless.

查看答案
题型:阅读理解
知识点:同位语从句
纠错
【答案】

1 D

2 A

3 C

4 A

5 B

【分析】

这是一篇说明文。短文介绍许多科技公司正在推进、研发 数字人类 ,并被很多部门使用。但一些科学家对此表示怀疑,并指出了 数字人类 并不是真正的人类,有很多缺陷。但前景还是很有希望的。

1. 细节理解题。根据第二段 “Tech company UneeQ is heading for its "digital humans", which appear life like on the screen not only in terms of language, but also because of facial movements: raised eyebrows, a smile, even a nod.” (科技公司 UneeQ 正在研发一种 数字人 ,这种人在屏幕上看起来栩栩如生,不仅因为语言,还因为面部动作 : 眉毛扬起、微笑,甚至点头。)由此可知,根据第 2 段, UneeQ9s 数字人 在言语和面部表情上方面与人类相似。故选 D 项。

2. 细节理解题。根据第三段 “Meanwhile, another Al company, Soul Machines, is taking a more biological approach, with a "digital brain", that imitates aspects of the human brain to adjust the emotions "fblt" and "expressed" by its “digital people”.” (与此同时,另一家 Al 公司,灵魂机器公司,正在采取一种更具生物性的方法,拥有一个 数字大脑 ,它模仿人脑的各个方面来调节其 数字人 “fblt” 表达 的情绪。)由此可知,灵魂机器的数字大脑是一项技术突破,因为它倾向于做出适当的情绪反应。故选 A 项。

3. 推理判断题。根据第四段 “"They're humanlike in their looks and the way they sound, but that in itself is not being human," she says. "Human qualities also involve how you think, how you approach problems, and how you break them down; and that takes a lot of algorithmic ( 算 法 )design, but they might behave differently in ways that humans just instinctively ( 直觉地 )know how other humans react.” 他们的外表和声音都像人类,但这本身不是人类, 她说。 人类的品质还包括你如何思考、如何处理问题以及如何分解问题;这需要大量的算法设计。但他们的行为方式可能不同,人类只是本能地知道其他人的反应。 )由此判断出,在 Mohan 看来,数字人缺少本能的判断。故选 C 项。

4. 细节理解题。根据第五段 “Yet the demand is there, with UneeQ seeing high adoption of its digital employees across the financial, health care, and commercial sectors (行业) .Unless these sectors make their business models much more efficient digitally, they might be left behind” (但需求依然存在, UneeQ 的数字员工在金融、医疗和商业行业的使用率很高。除非这些行业将它们的商业模式数字化得更高效,否则它们可能会被甩在后面)由此可知,害怕效率落后让许多行业使用 数字人类 。故选 A 项。

5. 推理判断题。根据最后一段 “Mohan is cautious about this approach, yet she supports the purpose behind these digital beings and is optimistic about where they are headed.” Mohan 对这种方法持谨慎态度,但她支持这些数字生物背后的目的,并对他们的未来持乐观态度)由此判断出, Mohan 数字人的未来是有希望的。故选 B 项。

=
考点梳理:
根据可圈可点权威老师分析,试题“ ”主要考查你对 同位语从句 等考点的理解。关于这些考点的“资料梳理”如下:
◎ 同位语从句的定义

同位语从句的概念:

在复合句中充当同位语的名词性从句称为同位语从句。同位语从句是名词性从句(主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句)中的主要从句之一,从句作同位语表示与之同位的名词(短语)的实际内容,它的作用相当于名词,对前面的名词(短语)加以补充说明或进一步解释,相当于一个表语从句,它们之间的关系是同位关系,即主表关系。

◎ 同位语从句的知识扩展
在复合句中充当同位语的名词性从句称为同位语从句。位语从句是名词性从句(主语从句、表语
从句、宾语从句、同位语从句)中的主要从句之一,从句作同位语表示与之同位的名词(短语)的
实际内容,它的作用相当于名词,对前面的名词(短语)加以补充说明或进一步解释,相当于一个
表语从句,它们之间的关系是同位关系,即主表关系。
1、同位语部分是个句子,就是同位语从句,这种用法比较“固定”。
1)在复合句中用作同位语的从句叫同位语从句。它一般跟在某些名词后面,用以说明该名词表示
   的具体内
容。   
I heard the news that our team had won.我听到了我们队获胜的消息。 
2)可以跟同位语从句的名词通常有news,idea,fact,promise,question,doubt,thought,hope,
   message, suggestion,words(消息),possibility等。   
   I’ve come from Mr wang with a message that he won’t be able to see you this afternoon.
   我从王先生那里来,他让我告诉你他今天下午不能来看你了。   
3)英语中引导同位语从句的词通有连词that,whether,连接代词what,who。连接副词how,when,where等。
   (注:if,which 不能引导同位语从句。)   
   He must answer the question whether he agrees to it or not.
   他必须回答他是否同意这样一个问题。   
4)有时同位语从句可以不紧跟在说明的名词后面,而被别的词隔开。   
   The thought came to him that maybe the enemy had fled the city.
   他突然想起可能敌人已经逃出城了。
2、同位语从句-引导词
  同位语从句的引导词,引导同位语从句的词语通常有连词that,whether,连接代词和连接副词等。
1)连词that引导同位语从句(注:引导同位语从句的that不能省略)   
   The idea that you can do this work well without thinking is quite wrong.
   你认为不动脑筋就能做好这件工作的想法是完全错误的。(作idea的同位语)   
  【注意1】在某些名词(如demand, wish, suggestion, resolution等)后面的同位语从句要用虚拟语气   
           There was a suggestion that Brown should be dropped from the team.
           有一项建议是布朗应该离队。   
  【注意2】引导同位语从句的连词that通常不省略,但在非正式文体中也可以省去。   
           He gabbed his suitcase and gave the impression he was boarding the Tokyo plane.
           他拿起了手提箱,给人的印象是他要登上飞往东京的飞机了。
2)连词whether引导同位语从句(注:if不能引导同位语从句)   
   The question whether we should call in a specialist was answered by the family doctor.
   我们是否请专家由家庭医生来定。   
  【注意】whether 可引导同位语从句,但if不能引导同位语从句。
3、其它引导词引导的同位语从句
  连接代词what, who, whom, whose, 引导同位语从句   
1)I have no idea what size shoes she wears.我不知道她穿几号的鞋。(what作定语) 
2)The question who will take his place is still not clear. (who作主语)
4、连接副词引导同位语从句
  连接副词when, where, how, why   
   We haven't yet settled the question where we are going to spend our summer vacation.
   到哪儿去度暑假,这个问题我们还没有决定。
◎ 同位语从句的知识点拨

同位语从句的用法:

1、同位语从句的引导:
词引导同位语从句的词语通常有连词that,whether,连接代词和连接副词等:
如:We heard the news that our team had won. 我们听到消息说我们队赢了。   
        They were worried over the fact that you were sick. 他们为你生病发愁。 
        I have no idea when he will come back. 我不知道他什么时候回来。
        There is some doubt whether he will come. 他是否会来还不一定。 
        The question whether it is right or wrong depends on the result. 这个是对还是错要看结果。
:whether可引导同位语从句,但if不能引导同位语从句。

2、同位语从句与定语从句的区别:
(1)意义的不同:
 同位语从句是用于说明所修饰名词的具体内容的,它与被修饰词语通常可以划等号;而定语从句是限制所修饰名词的,它的作用是将所修饰的名词与其他类似的东西区别开来:
如:We are glad at the news that he will come. 听到他要来这个消息我们很高兴。
(news的内容就是that he will come,故that引导的是同位语从句)
        We are glad at the news that he told us. 听到他告诉我们的这个消息我们很高兴。
(that从句是限制thenews的内容的,即我们高兴只是因为他告诉的这个news而不是其他的news,故that从句为定语从句)
(2)引导词的不同:
          what, how, if, whatever等可引导名词性从句,但不引导定语从句。
(3)引导词的功能上的不同:
          that引导同位语从句时,它不充当句子成分,而引导定语从句时,它作为关系代词,要么充当定语从句的主语,要么充当定语从句的宾语。
如上例that he told us中的that就充当told的宾语。
(4)被修饰词语的区别:
          同位语从句所修饰的名词比较有限,通常有hope, wish, idea, news, fact, promise, opinion, suggestion, truth等,而定语从句所修饰的名词则非常广泛。
另外,when和where引导定语从句时,通常只修饰表示时间和地点的名词,而它们引导同位语从句时却不一定;又如why引导定语从句,它通常只修饰名词thereason,而它引导同位语从句时则不一定:
如:I have no idea when they will come. 我不知道他们什么时候来。(同位语从句)
        I'll never forget the days when I lived there. 我永远不会忘记我住在那儿的日子。(定语从句)
        We don't understand the problem why this is the best choice. 我们不明白这个问题,为什么这是最好的选择。(同位语从句)
        There a son why he didn't come to the meeting is that he is ill. 他未能来开会,原因是他生病了。(定语从句)

◎ 同位语从句的知识拓展

同位语从句用法解析:

一、理解同位语从句的含义,把握同位语从句的实质:  
在主从复合句中作同位语的从句称为同位语从句。同位语从句一般用that, whether, what, which, who, when, where, why, how等词引导,常放在fact, news, idea, truth, hope, problem, information, wish, promise, answer, evidence, report, explanation, suggestion, conclusion, word, possibility等抽象名词后面,说明该名词的具体内容。换言之,同位语从句和所修饰的名词在内容上为同一关系,对其内容作进一步说明。
例:The news that they had won the game soon spread over the whole school. 他们比赛获胜的消息很快传遍了整个学校。
析:they had won the game说明the news的全部内容,因此该句为同位语从句。

二、正确运用同位语从句的引导词,准确把握同位语从句:
1、如同位语从句意义完整,应用that引导同位语从句。(即that不充当任何成分,只起连接作用,不可省略) 
例:The general gave the order that the soldiers should cross the river at once. 将军下达了战士们立即过河的命令。 
析:the soldiers should cross the river at once是the order的全部内容,且意义完整,因此应用that引导同位语从句。
2、如同位语从句意义不完整,需增加"是否"的含义,应用whether引导同位语从句。(if不能引导同位语从句)
例:We'll discuss the problem whether the sports meeting will be held on time. 我们将讨论运动会是否会如期举行的问题。
析:the sports meeting will be held on time 意义不完整,应加“是否”的含义才能表达the problem的全部内容,因此应用whether引导同位语从句。
3、如同位语从句意义不完整,需增加"什么时候"、"什么地点"、"什么方式"等含义,应用when, where, how等词引导同位语从句。 
例1:I have no idea when he will be back.  
析:he will be back 意义不完整,应加"什么时候"的含义才能表达idea的全部内容,因此应用when引导同位语从句。 
例2:I have no impression how he went home, perhaps by bike.
析:he went home 意义不完整,应加"如何"的含义才能表达impression的全部内容,因此应用how引导同位语从句。
4、当主句的谓语较短,而同位语从句较长时,同位语从句常后置。
如:The thought came to him that may be the enemy had fled the city.

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