Over the last seven years, most states have banned texting by drivers, and public service campaigns have tried a wide range of methods to persuade people to put down their phones when they are behind the wheel.

Yet the problem, by just about any measure, appears to be getting worse. Americans are still texting while driving, as well as using social networks and taking photos. Road accidents, which had fallen for years, are now rising sharply.

That is partly because people are driving more, but Mark Rosekind, the chief of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, said distracted (分心) driving was "only increasing, unfortunately."

"Big change requires big ideas." he said in a speech last month, referring broadly to the need to improve road safety. So to try to change a distinctly modern behavior, lawmakers and public health experts are reaching back to an old approach: They want to treat distracted driving like drunk driving.

An idea from lawmakers in New York is to give police officers a new device called the Textalyzer. It would work like this: An officer arriving at the scene of a crash could ask for the phones of the drivers and use the Textalyzer to check in the operating system for recent activity. The technology could determine whether a driver had just texted, emailed or done anything else that is not allowed under New York's hands-free driving laws.

"We need something on the books that can change people's behavior,” said Félix W. Ortiz, who pushed for the state's 2001 ban on hand-held devices by drivers. If the Textalyzer bill becomes law, he said, "people are going to be more afraid to put their hands on the cell phone."

23 Which of the following best describes the ban on drivers' texting in the US?

A Ineffective. B Unnecessary.

C Inconsistent. D Unfair.

24 What can the Textalyzer help a police officer find out?

A Where a driver came from. B Whether a driver used their phone.

C How fast a driver was going. D When a driver arrived at the scene.

25 What does the underlined word "something" in the last paragraph refer to?

A Advice. B Data. C Tests. D Laws.

26 What is a suitable title for the text?

A To Drive or Not to Drive? Think Before You Start

B Texting and Driving? Watch Out for the Textalyzer

C New York Banning Hand-Held Devices by Drivers.

D The Next Generation Cell Phone: The Textalyzer-


A    24 B    25 D    26 B

【导语】本文一篇说明文。为解决司机在开车时使用手机造成 分神 ,引发交通事故的问题,纽约的一名立法者提出使用 Textalyzer (短信监控器)的技术来监控司机在开车的时候是否使用了手机。

23 .推理判断题。根据第一段中 “Over the last seven years, most states have banned texting by drivers, and public service campaigns have tried a wide range of methods to persuade people to put down their phones when they are behind the wheel.” (在过去的七年里,大多数州都禁止司机发短信,公共服务活动也尝试了各种各样的方法来说服人们在开车时放下手机。)以及第二段中 “Yet the problem, by just about any measure, appears to be getting worse.” (然而,无论以何种标准衡量,这个问题似乎都在恶化。)可知,大多数州使用了各种各样的方法说服司机们在开车的时候放下手机,可是情况却越来越糟糕。所以各种方法是无效的。 A 选项 ineffective 意为 无效的 ,与此相符。故选 A

24 .细节理解题。根据倒数第二段中 “The technology could determine whether a driver had just texted, emailed or done anything else that is not allowed under New York's hands-free driving laws.” (这项技术可以确定司机是否发了短信、发了邮件,或者做了纽约免提驾驶法不允许的其他事情。)可知, Textalyzer 能够确定的是司机是否使用了手机发短信、邮件以及其他驾驶法不允许的行为。 B 选项意为 是否司机使用了手机。 与此相符,故选 B

25 .词义猜测题。根据句中的 “We need something on the books that can change people's behavior.” (我们需要一些能改变人们行为的东西,)可知, something 是能够改变人们的行为的事情。根据下文的 “If the Textalyzer bill becomes law, he said, "people are going to be more afraid to put their hands on the cell phone.” (他说,如果 Textalyzer 法案成为法律, 人们会更害怕拿起手机。)可知,人们的行为会改变的条件是当 Textalyzer 法案成为法律。受到法律的约束和惩罚,司机们才不会在开车的时候使用手机。故 something 指代的是法律。故选 D

26 .主旨大意题。纵观全文,第一段和第二段阐述的是 虽然大多数州已经尝试了各种各样的方法来说服人们在开车时放下手机。可是问题却越来越严重 。第三段中 “That is partly because people are driving more.” (部分原因是开车的人越来越多)可知,解释了该行为产生的部分原因。第四段至第五段讲述的是为了解决该问题是纽约立法者提出了一个新的想法即利用 Textalyzer 技术,来监控司机在开车的时候是否使用了手机。最后一段讲述的是:相关人士呼吁该项技术能够成为真正的法案由此才能真正地改变人们的行为。故 B 选项 Texting and Driving? Watch Out for the Textalyzer (发短信还是在开车?防范短信监控器。)适合文章的标题。故选 B


We’ve all been there. You’re around new people and you just want to impress them. It can be easy to pretend you know about movies, politics, or science just to get through an awkward situation. But contrary to what feels most natural, a new series of five studies from Pepperdine University shows that those who can admit when they don’t know something tend to actually have more knowledge. If you want to make those people think you’re smart, maybe the best thing to say is “I don’t know.”

For the study, which was led by Elizabeth Krumrei-Mancuso, the team of researchers had one question: Is there a knowledge benefit to admitting intellectual fallibility? To find out, they ran not one, not two, but five separate experiments. They engaged nearly 1,200 participants in their study, and evaluated them using a number of questionnaires testing their cognitive abilities, measuring their own predictions of their cognitive abilities, and, of course, rating their levels of intellectual humility.

For that last part, they used different methods in different studies to get a more wellrounded set of results. One IH survey used eight questions to assess participants on two elements: the “KnowingItAll” subscale, which judged their attitudes of intellectual superiority, and the “Intellectual Openness” subscale, which assessed how open they were to learning from others. In other studies, they used the 22-question “Comprehensive Intellectual Humility Scale,” which assesses participants on four elements: independence of intellect and ego, openness to revising one’s viewpoint, respect for others’ viewpoints, and lack of intellectual overconfidence. The five studies were used to examine past learning, thinking styles, traits, and motivations.

What the researchers may agree is that the best thing to remember is that curiosity seems to be a good thing. The world is big, and it’s impossible to know everything. At your next dinner party, ask questions and admit your own cluelessness. It might make you a little less clueless next time.

38Why did Elizabeth Krumrei-Mancuso led the study    

Ato find out whether admitting that you don’t know something is beneficial.

Bto find the certain benefit of admitting intellectual disability.

Cto compare the modest people with proud people.

Dto stress the importance of curiosity.

39From the article, we can learn that     .

Awe all tend to pretend we have a good command of knowledge.

Bthe study engaged over 1,200 participants in their study.

C”I don’t know” may be a good answer to people who ask you if you are clever.

Da number of questionnaires are used to test participants’ cognitive humility.

40What is the best title of the article    

ABe yourself!                                              BAdmitting your fallibility!

CExpress your drawbacks!                            DLet curiosity lead you!


  A native of Florida, U. S. , Hannah Herbst, 17, uses water power to deal with energy poverty. Herbst has risen to fame with the development of BEACON, an ocean energy probe that seeks to offer a stable power source to developing countries by using untapped energy from ocean currents.

She told Teen Vogue , " I was really involved in theater and athletics and I'm still really into those things. When I was in the seventh grade, I was put into a summer camp. The minute I got there I realized that I was the only girl in the program. I wanted to quit at that moment. But my dad told me, ' Just try it. '  I tried it for that day and it changed my life. ”

“At the camp, we started building the robots, which is something I had never done before but many of the boys had, and I realized it was a platform for problem-solving. We were solving simple tasks like how to push a robot off a platform. Learning from my partners as well as online articles about how to program and build was really interesting to me," said Herbst.

Later that year, she received a letter from her pen pal, Ruth, who lives in Ethiopia, and learned that she was living in energy poverty with minimal access to electricity and medical supplies. " I knew that I wanted to do something to help, so I created BEACON, she said.

The device is made from 90% recycled materials easily found throughout the world, including 2-liter bottles and recycled spoons. It costs $ 12 to make and can produce enough electricity to power an LED light. Hannah imagines BEACON being used in developing countries to power pumps for fresh water and she is working on polishing it to get it available to people all over the world.

4What advice does Herbst most likely give to teens by her camp experience?

AQuilting to gain more.

BGiving something a go.

CDeveloping various interests.

DAvoiding favorable conditions

5What kind of summer camp did Herbst join in the seventh grade?

AAthletic.                                                   BLiterature.

CTheater.                                                    DEngineering.

6Which words can best describe Hannah Herbst?

AEnergetic and kind.                                    BHelpful and creative.

CGenerous and modest.                                DCareful and adventurous.

7What can we know about BEACON?

AIt is a powerful LED light.

BIt's made without any cost.

CIts materials are accessible.

DIt has been put on the market.


  Chinese social media apps have struggled to win over users beyond their home. TikTok is changing that. In the space of just two years, the app has attracted more than half a billion users — around 40% of them outside China --who share short videos of themselves singing, cooking, dancing or just being silly.

Created by the Beijing-based Internet technology company Byte Dance, TikTok has gained an international edge over China's influential social media platforms, such as Tencent's WeChat, Sina Weibo (WB) and Youku of Alibaba (BABA).

What makes Byte Dance better is its right direction and achievement in the social media category, which is largely controlled by Facebook ( FB) , Twitter and Snap all Western companies, said Randy Nelson , head of Mobile Insights at analytics firm Sensor Tower. Social video apps reached new levels of popularity this year. Three of them are in the top 10 most downloaded apps worldwide, according to Sensor Tower. Byte Dance owns two of the three: Vigo Video and TikTok. The other is Instagram, which belongs to Facebook.

Byte Dance calls itself an artificial intelligence company. It uses machine learning   and algorithms to figure out what people like and give them more of what they want to see. the company is best known in China for the popular news app Toutiao, which was put into use in 2012. People got hooked on the app' s customized news feeds quickly. Toutiao now has more than 240 million monthly active users that spend on average 74 minutes per day on the platform.

Byte Dance' s success is attracting big investors. It's reportedly in talks with technology kingmaker SoftBank ( SFTBY) about an investment that would value it at around $75 billion, a huge jump from the $ 20 billion valuation it secured last year. That would make Byte Dance one of the world’s most valuable companies alongside Uber.

8What can be learnt about TikTok?

AIt has appealed to many foreign users.

BIt's the most popular Chinese app abroad.

CIt's the most successful app of Byte Dance.

DIt allows users to share whatever they like on it.

9What sets Byte Dance apart from other Internet technology companies overseas?

ASupport from its investors.                         BSuccess in social video apps.

CGreater diversity in contents.                       DAI technology applied to apps.

10Which of the following can replace the underlined words "got hooked on” in Paragraph 4?

Awere tired of                                             Bwere trapped in.

Cwere familiar with                                     Dwere attracted by

11What is the main idea of the text?

ATik Tok has beaten other social media apps.

BChina's social media apps are successful globally.

CSocial video apps win popularity around the world.

DByte Dance is taking the social media world by storm.


    Plastic-Eating Worms

Humans produce more than 300 million tons of plastic every year. Almost half of that winds up in landfills(垃圾填埋场), and up to 12 million tons pollute the oceans. So far there is no effective way to get rid of it, but a new study suggests an answer may lie in the stomachs of some hungry worms.

Researchers in Spain and England recently found that the worms of the greater wax moth can break down polyethylene, which accounts for 40% of plastics. The team left 100 wax worms on a commercial polyethylene shopping bag for 12 hours, and the worms consumed and broke down about 92 milligrams, or almost 3% of it. To confirm that the worms’ chewing alone was not responsible for the polyethylene breakdown, the researchers made some worms into paste(糊状物) and applied it to plastic films. 14 hours later the films had lost 13% of their mass — apparently broken down by enzymes () from the worms’ stomachs. Their findings were published in Current Biology in 2017.

Federica Bertocchini, co-author of the study, says the worms’ ability to break down their everyday food — beeswax — also allows them to break down plastic. "Wax is a complex mixture, but the basic bond in polyethylene, the carbon-carbon bond, is there as well, "she explains, "The wax worm evolved a method or system to break this bond. "

Jennifer DeBruyn, a microbiologist at the University of Tennessee, who was not involved in the study, says it is not surprising that such worms can break down polyethylene. But compared with previous studies, she finds the speed of breaking down in this one exciting. The next step, DeBruyn says, will be to identify the cause of the breakdown. Is it an enzyme produced by the worm itself or by its gut microbes(肠道微生物)?

Bertocchini agrees and hopes her team’s findings might one day help employ the enzyme to break down plastics in landfills. But she expects using the chemical in some kind of industrial process — not simply "millions of worms thrown on top of the plastic."

43What can we learn about the worms in the study?

AThey take plastics as their everyday food.

BThey are newly evolved creatures.

CThey can consume plastics.

DThey wind up in landfills.

44According to Jennifer DeBruyn, the next step of the study is to            .

Aidentify other means of the breakdown

Bfind out the source of the enzyme

Cconfirm the research findings

Dincrease the breakdown speed

45It can be inferred from the last paragraph that the chemical might            .

Ahelp to raise worms

Bhelp make plastic bags

Cbe used to clean the oceans

Dbe produced in factories in future

46What is the main purpose of the passage?

ATo explain a study method on worms.

BTo introduce the diet of a special worm.

CTo present a way to break down plastics.

DTo propose new means to keep eco-balance.


    Preparing Cities for Robot Cars

The possibility of self-driving robot cars has often seemed like a futurist’s dream, years away from materializing in the real world. Well, the future is apparently now. The California Department of Motor Vehicles began giving permits in April for companies to test truly self-driving cars on public roads. The state also cleared the way for companies to sell or rent out self-driving cars, and for companies to operate driverless taxi services. California, it should be noted, isn’t leading the way here. Companies have been testing their vehicles in cities across the country. It’s hard to predict when driverless cars will be everywhere on our roads. But however long it takes, the technology has the potential to change our transportation systems and our cities, for better or for worse, depending on how the transformation is regulated.

While much of the debate so far has been focused on the safety of driverless cars(and rightfully so), policymakers also should be talking about how self-driving vehicles can help reduce traffic jams, cut emissions(排放) and offer more convenient, affordable mobility options. The arrival of driverless vehicles is a chance to make sure that those vehicles are environmentally friendly and more shared.

Do we want to copy — or even worsen — the traffic of today with driverless cars? Imagine a future where most adults own individual self-driving vehicles. They tolerate long, slow journeys to and from work on packed highways because they can work, entertain themselves or sleep on the ride, which encourages urban spread. They take their driverless car to an appointment and set the empty vehicle to circle the building to avoid paying for parking. Instead of walking a few blocks to pick up a child or the dry cleaning, they send the self-driving minibus. The convenience even leads fewer people to take public transport — an unwelcome side effect researchers have already found in ride-hailing(叫车) services.

A study from the University of California at Davis suggested that replacing petrol-powered private cars worldwide with electric, self-driving and shared systems could reduce carbon emissions from transportation 80% and cut the cost of transportation infrastructure(基础设施) and operations 40% by 2050. Fewer emissions and cheaper travel sound pretty appealing. The first commercially available driverless cars will almost certainly be fielded by ride-hailing services, considering the cost of self-driving technology as well as liability and maintenance issues(责任与维护问题). But driverless car ownership could increase as the prices drop and more people become comfortable with the technology.

Policymakers should start thinking now about how to make sure the appearance of driverless vehicles doesn’t extend the worst aspects of the car-controlled transportation system we have today. The coming technological advancement presents a chance for cities and states to develop transportation systems designed to move more people, and more affordably. The car of the future is coming. We just have to plan for it.

47According to the author, attention should be paid to how driverless cars can __________.

Ahelp deal with transportation-related problems

Bprovide better services to customers

Ccause damage to our environment

Dmake some people lose jobs

48As for driverless cars, what is the author’s major concern?

ASafety.                                                      BSide effects.

CAffordability.                                            DManagement.

49What does the underlined word "fielded" in Paragraph 4 probably mean?

AEmployed.                                                BReplaced.

CShared.                                                     DReduced.

50What is the author’s attitude to the future of self-driving cars?

ADoubtful.                                                  BPositive.

CDisapproving.                                            DSympathetic.


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