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  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-05-08
    来源: 江苏省启东中学2016-2017学年高一下学期第一次月考英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    In many parts of the world, traveling by train is a common experience. Sometimes, as a result of saving time during travel and due to a packed schedule, people may end up traveling by plane or taking buses for shorter distances. However, in comparison, rail travel has distinct advantages over buses, planes, cars or boats.

       For example, next to ships, trains offer the most spacious mode of travel. For a big group, the entire compartment or two is free to change into a temporary camp. You can move around, take a walk, lie down, put your legs up, and walk to the dining car for a meal if you feel hungry. Also you have the freedom to sleep in the right position, sit comfortably, and decide your own time of arrival. As a result, you will have a comfortable journey.

      Trains also can provide cheaper baggage weight. Why? Trains do not require baggage checks, and all luggage is in front of you; not many items are restricted, and you can take as much luggage as you can, as long as you can carry it around yourself, because it is so much cheaper than airlines.

      In addition, trains are easier to catch other means of transport. As we know, the same city usually has about 2-3 major stations where one may choose to get on or off. Unlike bus stations or airports, there is no single point of entry and exist from a particular city, which also enables you to catch a train easily. It saves large amounts of money in taxi fares, reducing the distance from stations to the destination.

      Trains make you have more interaction with others. How many times have you been annoyed by pushy, sleeping, snoring, armchair-grabbing men on buses, where you regret having received the worst co-passenger in travelling history? Or do you remember the last time you had a meaningful conversation with a stranger sitting next to you? Traveling by train makes it possible to create such relationships with co-passengers you’re forced into a room with for an average of twelve hours.

      More importantly, trains run in almost any weather, except heavy snow, which is almost always taken care of. Blocked roads or stormy weather is not a threat to the train. So if there is an emergency and all flights are booked or grounded, the train is the best and most convenient solution.

      So everyone must undertake a train journey at least once in their lives, just to gain one of the best experiences of traveling there is. After all, if it is the journey, not the destination, that counts, then take a train to make the journey stress-free.

    Title: Travelling by train

         86    

    Trains have many advantages over many other means of transportation though

    they are slower than planes or run longer     87     than buses.

    Advantages

    ◆A train offers a lot of space for you to move or rest freely, which offers you

         88   

    ◆ You can get on the train without getting your luggage     89   

    ◆ Trains are available thanks to several major     90      in the same city

    ◆On the train, you have more     91      to communicate with others.

    ◆ If it doesn’t snow     92     , you can always travel by train.

    ◆ A train won’t be     93      by blocked roads or bad weather

        94   

    Take a train if you aren’t in a hurry and don’t want your journey to be   95    

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:1 入库时间:2017-04-13
    来源: 江苏省仪征中学2017届高三下学期期初测试英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    How traffic affects our health

          When talking about traffic problems, weso need to take into consideration the pollution that we are exposed to and the health problems traffic causes. Given below is an in-depth exposition on how traffic affects our health and what we can do to avoid some of these effects to live a longer and healthier life.

    Aches and Pains

          Driving in a slouched(无精打釆的)position puts pressure on your back and neck. Back pain is often due to poor posture which can have a negative effect on your health. Your bad posture also puts stress on the joints of your elbows and knees, causing pain and tiredness to these areas of your body.

         When you are driving in traffic, you are constantly shifting between the accelerator and brake (in automatic transmission cars), and clutch, brake, and accelerator (in manual transmission cars). This constant shifting puts pressure and stress on your knees, causing knee-related problems and aches.

    What can you do?

        You can counteract these ill effect and posture problems by sitting upright and having a support for your lower back and neck. Adjust the position of your seat in such a way that you can drive at ease without any discomfort. The backrest of the seat should be straight up, and not pulled down too much. Respiratory(呼吸的)Problems

        Exposure to heavy traffic implies exposure to poisonous gases that are emitted by vehicles. It is believed that the transportation sector in the US is responsible for a quarter of the country’s greenhouse gas emissions.

        Our lungs arc like sponges, soaking in everything that is breathed in by our respiratory system. The smoke coming out of the tailpipes of vehicles presents a serious threat to human health. Prolonged exposure to traffic emissions can cause, various respiratory diseases including lung cancer.

    What can you do?

         There are ways to avoid breathing in polluted air. If you can, avoid driving in parts of your town with heavy traffic congestion. However, if you find yourself driving through such areas, roll up your car windows to minimize exposure to harmful gases. If you plan to go out for a walk or run, do it in a place where you get loads of fresh air. Eat foods that are rich in antioxidants(抗氧化剂)and exercise regularly so that your immune system is strong enough to fight off potential threats to your health.

         Travel and traffic are two things that are absolutely unavoidableand that is why we should try to be as comfortable as possible, to be stress-free and illness-free!

    How traffic  affects our health

    Passage outline

    Supporting details

    Lead-in

    When it (71) _____________ to traffic problems, we should pay enough attention to the pollution we are exposed to and the health problems that traffic causes.

    Aches and Pains

    Problems

    (72) ______________ a poor position when you are driving can affect your health badly in several ways such as back, neck, even the joints of your elbows and knees.

    Shifting posture constantly in the (73) _____________ of driving will put pressure and stress on your knees, causing aches and pains.

     

     

     

     

    Solutions

    You can sit upright and have a support for your lower back and neck. You can make (74) _____________   to the position of your seat.

    You can (75) ______________   the backrest of your seat and avoid pulling it down too much. 

    Respiratory

    Problems

    Problems

    It is believed that the transportation sector is to (76) _____________     for a quarter greenhouse gas emissions in the US.

    Our lungs breathe in harmful elements in the smoke from vehicles, damaging our health seriously.

    Long exposure to dangerous pollutants from vehicles can cause various lung-related diseases, lung cancer (77)  _____________  .

    Solutions

    You should try to drive through the areas (78) ______________ from heavy traffic congestion.

    You must wind up your car windows to keep exposure, to harmful pollutants to the (79)  _____________ .

    You should choose a place where you get loads of fresh air to take a walk or have a run.

    You must attach (80) ______________  to your diet and regular exercise to fight off potential threats to your health.

    Conclusion

    We should try to be stress-free and illness-free while driving or I traveling.

     

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-04-13
    来源: 江苏省如皋市2017届高三下学期语数英联考(一)英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    Maintain a healthy diet

    Maintaining a healthy diet can be challenging for a variety of reasons: insufficient time, ever-evolving research on super foods, and an overwhelming amount of competing and expensive diet plans. Long story short, there’s tons of noise out there about what to eat and what not to eat. It seems like everyone is an “expert” these days with an opinion. So, to save you time and undue stress, we’ve streamlined that information, pulling out the most common diet habits from leading voices in the wellness world. Keep scrolling to find out our top five.

    First, remember breakfast might just be the most important meal of the day, so it’s important you start off on a healthful foot. To get started, you may find it helpful to stick to similar foods each morning, nothing too complex—think egg whites, organic berries, spinach, and avocado. Or just stick to a smoothie(果汁与牛奶混合的饮料) once you get comfortable with that, certified holistic nutritionist Elizabeth Stein advised a few delicious recipes for a healthy breakfast perfect for the weekend when you have a little more time to experiment in the kitchen.

    It’s undeniable that one of the first names we think of in Hollywood wellness is Gwyneth Paltrow. She’s an ardent follower of healthy living and elimination diets such as CLEAN that consist of, you guessed it, clean whole foods; i. e. foods with tons of additives are out, like frozen dinners, fast food and most any takeout. She contributes a lot to the progress of the focus to shift to organic produce, learn animal proteins, nuts and non-gluten grains and starch (and her body is kind of proof it works). She even wrote a book of healthy recipes, it’s All Good.

      Exercise benefits our health of course, but following a workout, your body is in recovery mode and your metabolism in overdrive. Consuming the correct foods to replenish, reduce inflammation, and re-hydrate is key. We even have a specific list of which foods to reach for after a workout from our exclusive interview with plant-based nutrition site Vega’s national educator and RHN, Emma Andrews.

    Besides, don’t forget consuming soda is one of the worst things you can do to your body. In a study published in the medical journal Heart, drinking only two cans of any soda is proven to make you more likely to suffer from heart disease. Instead, sip on a sweet alternative like Vita Coco Coconut Water.

    And we should consume healthy fat. That’s right, according to three nutritionists, there are some fats that are considered great for the body’s digestion, and we should all be adding them to our grocery list ASAP. A few to know: avocado, raw nuts, and coconut oil.

    title

    How to maintain a healthy diet

    (76)____________

    Lack of time and numerous diet plans make it difficult to maintain a healthy diet. Besides, new research on super foods are always(77)_____up.

    tips

    *Saying no to (78)____breakfast.

       Start from similar and (79)______foods each morning, and then have a (80)__________at a few delicious recipes if you are not time-constraint.

    *Eating whole foods

      Gwyneth Paltrow is a big fan of healthy living and elimination diets and (81)_____the focus to shift to whole foods

    *Refueling after a workout

       After a workout, what counts is to consume the correct foods to help our body(82)_________

    *Avoiding soda

       Soda is proven to be harmful to your body in that only two cans of any soda can (83)_______the risk of heart disease. An (84)______is to have Vita Coco Conconut Water.

    *(85)________healthy fats

       Some fats are recommended to be added to our grocery list ASAP.

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  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-04-10
    来源: 江苏省联盟大联考2017届高三2月联考英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    The worst time to look for a job is when you must have a new one immediately.Job Searching under pressure often results in nervous interviewing and decision-making from rela­tively few options.If you are not in need of an immediate career change,here are ways you can improve your long-term career prospects (前景) today:

    Identify at least two different roles.You do not have to be qualified for these positions today,nor do they have to exist in your company.However,these roles should be related to your current skill set.They are career options that look interesting.Once you have a couple of targets,think about why and what interests you.Pay close attention to what appeals to you,and write it down.This will give insight into your motivations and targets.

    Subscribe to a career specific magazine.Knowledge is power in the workplace.All busi­nesses must stay relevant to their customers in order to win the competitions and increase revenue(收益).Reading about industry trends,advancements and success stories keeps you in touch with market conditions.This information allows you to see which companies and pro­fessionals are leading the peck.You can follow their examples in your own workplace.If you associate with those that stand out from the rest,you are likely to find yourself with better opportunities.

    Do exceptional work.In any role,there is a way to perform at your best.Look for ways to deliver a top performance.Show up early,be flexible to new assignments,have a positive attitude,cooperate with other departments,pay attention to the little details.

    Be professionally curious.Talk to people about their careers.Learn more about how success is measured in other roles,departments and companies.Ask people their thoughts on different industries.Challenge yourself to expand your business knowledge through interactions with people at regular time.People hire people.You never know what connections may be relevant when you start your next job search,so develop a habit of making good connections no matter where you go.Take the time to learn about others,and be helpful when you can.

    As in all things in life,getting in front of a difficult task early is always less stressful than reacting to a career surprise.Changing jobs is to be expected.No matter how secure you feel today,the time will come when either you or your employer decide it is time to change.

    How to Improve Your Carter Prospects

    Passage outline

    Supporting details

    Introduction

    ♦Job searching under pressure (71)    ▲     nervous interviewing and decision- making from relatively few options.

    Identify at least

    two different roles

    ♦The roles are supposed to have (72)    ▲     to do with your currrnt skill set.

    ♦Pay close attention to those things that (73)    ▲     yoa

    Subscribe to a magazine on carter

    ♦The relevant knowledge in the workplace can help beat the (74)    ▲     working in other companies.

    ♦Follow the examples in your field,making it (75)    ▲     for you too get better chances.

    Do exceptional work

    ♦ Try your best to perform at your best

    ♦ Work early to finish new tasks with a flexible and positive attitude.

    ♦ Cooperate with other departments,not (76)    ▲     little details.

    Be professionally curious

    ♦ Talk about people’s careers and learn how people (77)    ▲     success in other role and fields.

    ♦ Widen your business knowledge by interacting with people (78)    ▲    .

    ♦ Develop a Habit of connecting well wherever you go.

    Conclusion

    ♦ Getting hard tasks early can be more (79)    ▲     than reading to a career surprise.

    ♦ Changing jobs may be unavoidable in your way.(80)    ▲      the fact that you fed secure today.

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  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-04-10
    来源: 江苏省南京师范大学附属扬子中学2017年高三2月期初调研考试英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

     A brief course of brain exercises helped older adults hold on to improvements in reasoning skills and processing speed that could be detected as long as 10 years after the course ended, according to results from the largest study ever done on cognitive training(认知训练).

    The findings, published on Monday in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, offer welcome news in the search for ways to keep the mind sharp as 76 million baby boomers(婴儿潮出生的一代人) in the United States advance into old age.

    The federally-sponsored trial of almost 3,000 older adults, called the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly Study(ACTIVE), looked at how three brain training programs—focusing on processing speed, memory and reasoning ability—affected  cognitively-normal adults as they aged. 

    People in the study had an average age of 74 when they started the training, which involved 10 to 12 sessions lasting 60 to 75 minutes each. The training course was designed to improve specific cognitive abilities that begin to decline as people age. It did not aim to prevent dementia(痴呆) caused by underlying disease such as Alzheimer’s(阿尔茨海默症). After five years, researchers found that those with the training performed better than their untrained counterparts(相对应的人) in all three measures.

    Although gains in memory seen at the study’s five-year mark appeared to drop off over the next five years, gains in reasoning ability and processing speed lasted 10 years after the training.

    “What we found was pretty astonishing. Ten years after the training, there was evidence the effects were durable for the reasoning and the speed training,” said George Rebok, an expert on aging and a professor at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, who led the study.

    The participants in all three training groups also reported that the training made it easier for them to do daily activities such as managing their medications, cooking meals or handling their finances than those who did not get the training. But standard tests of these activities showed no differences between the groups.

    “The speed-of-processing results are very encouraging,” said study co-author Jonathan King, program director for cognitive aging in the Division of Behavioral and Social Research at the National Institute on Aging (NIA), part of the National Institutes of Health, which helped fund the research.

    King said the self-reported improvements in daily function were interesting, but added, “We do not yet know whether they would truly allow older people to be independent for a longer time.” However, the researchers said even a small gain would be likely to ease the burden on caregivers and health care providers.

    “If we delay the attack of difficulties in daily activities even by a small amount, that can have major public health implications in terms of helping to control healthcare costs, delaying entry into institutions and hospitals,” Rebok said.

    Brain Training Courses Keep Seniors (71)___▲___

    Basic information about the study

    The study was (72)___▲___ by the federal government.

    There were about 3,000 participants who were 74 years old on (73)___ ▲____.

    They were given cognitive training, whose (74)___▲___ were processing speed, memory and reasoning ability.

    Findings of the study

    The training made the participants better at processing, (75)__ ▲__ and reasoning.

    With the brain exercises, older adults saw (76)___▲___ in reasoning skills and processing speed for 10 years after the training.

    According to the participants’ own report, they had an (77)___▲__ time with daily activities.

    (78)___▲____of the study

    The findings help in looking for ways to keep the mind sharp with the baby boomers (79)___▲___.

    Opinions of the researchers

    It is unknown whether the effects of brain training would enable older adults to live independently longer.

    However, even a small gain could reduce the burden of (80)__ ▲__ the elders.

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  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-04-04
    来源: 河北省定州中学2016-2017学年高一下学期开学考试英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    Travelling to all corners of the world gets easier and easier. We live in a global village,  but this doesn't mean that we all behave in the same way.

    How should we behave when you meet someone for the first time? An American shakes your hand firmly while looking you straight in the eye. In many parts of Asia, there is no physical contact () at all. In Japan, you should bow, and the more respect you want to show, the deeper you should bow. In Thailand, people greet each other by pressing both hands together at the chest. In both countries, eye contact is avoided as a sign of respect.

    Many countries have rules about what you should and shouldn't wear. In Korea, you should takeoff your shoes when entering a house. Remember to place them neatly together where you came in.

    In Spain, lunch is often the biggest meal of the day, and can last two or three hours. For this reason many people eat a light breakfast and a late dinner. In Mexico, lunch is a time to relax, and many people prefer not to discuss business as they eat. In Britain, it's not unusual to have a business meeting over breakfast.

    In most countries, an exchange of business cards is necessary for all introductions. You should include your company name and your position. If you are going to a country where your language is not widely spoken, you can get the back side of your card printed in the local language. In China, you may present your card with the writing facing the person you are giving it to.

    Title: Good 35______

    Aspect

    Country

    Custom

    36______

    ·America

    ·Japan

    ·37_ _____

    ·Shaking hands firmly

    ·38______to show respect

    ·Pressing both hands together at the chest

    Dressing

    ·Korea

    ·Taking off your shoes at the 39______

    Eating

    ·Spain

    ·Mexico

    ·40_ _____

    ·Having a light breakfast and a late dinner

    ·Relaxing while having 41______

    ·Holding a business meeting over breakfast

    Doing business

    ·Most countries

    ·China

    ·Exchanging business card when 42_ _____

    yourself

    ·Presenting a card to a person 43_ _____ its front facing him

    Conclusion: When travelling44_ _____, we should follow local customs.

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  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-04-04
    来源: 河北省定州中学2016-2017学年高一(承智班)下学期开学考试英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    Travelling to all corners of the world gets easier and easier. We live in a global village,  but this doesn't mean that we all behave in the same way.

    How should we behave when you meet someone for the first time? An American shakes your hand firmly while looking you straight in the eye. In many parts of Asia, there is no physical contact () at all. In Japan, you should bow, and the more respect you want to show, the deeper you should bow. In Thailand, people greet each other by pressing both hands together at the chest. In both countries, eye contact is avoided as a sign of respect.

    Many countries have rules about what you should and shouldn't wear. In Korea, you should takeoff your shoes when entering a house. Remember to place them neatly together where you came in.

    In Spain, lunch is often the biggest meal of the day, and can last two or three hours. For this reason many people eat a light breakfast and a late dinner. In Mexico, lunch is a time to relax, and many people prefer not to discuss business as they eat. In Britain, it's not unusual to have a business meeting over breakfast.

    In most countries, an exchange of business cards is necessary for all introductions. You should include your company name and your position. If you are going to a country where your language is not widely spoken, you can get the back side of your card printed in the local language. In China, you may present your card with the writing facing the person you are giving it to.

    Title: Good 34______

    Aspect

    Country

    Custom

    35______

    ·America

    ·Japan

    ·36_ _____

    ·Shaking hands firmly

    ·37______to show respect

    ·Pressing both hands together at the chest

    Dressing

    ·Korea

    ·Taking off your shoes at the 38______

    Eating

    ·Spain

    ·Mexico

    ·39_ _____

    ·Having a light breakfast and a late dinner

    ·Relaxing while having 40______

    ·Holding a business meeting over breakfast

    Doing business

    ·Most countries

    ·China

    ·Exchanging business card when 41_ _____

    yourself

    ·Presenting a card to a person 42_ _____ its front facing him

    Conclusion: When travelling43_ _____, we should follow local customs.

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  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-03-27
    来源: 广东省天河中学2016-2017学年高一下学期英语2月月考试题及答案 Word版含答案.doc

    It is interesting to know what people of different nations like to be best.

    In France, when a woman enters a café or restaurant, she is freely discussed, not only about her appearance but about her past and future as well. She invites looks in the street whether she is beautiful or plain. There is no better way for a woman to get back her self-confidence than a walk in the streets of Paris or Marseilles, and woman really like that.

    In Italy, people love talking. They sit about in cafes, exchanging news and discussing politics. They do not hesitate to ask questions about the family, income and private life of anybody who happens to be there.

    The Swiss eat as a pastime. Ladies walk into a teashop, eat a couple of ice creams and a large piece of chocolate cake, and then leave, complaining about their weight.

    For the Americans, the greatest fondness is said to be the push of buttons. You push a button in the lift, you push a button for cigarette, chewing gums, stamps, even for a life insurance. You can even push a button to get married and another button to get divorced.

    In England, waiting in a line is national passion. The English will form a line whether they have the opportunity or not. Long queues can be seen, for example, at stations when the train is practically empty and everybody can have a seat.

    In different (76)____

    What people like to do best

    In France

    People love to discuss how a woman (77)______, what she did in the past and what she will be in the future.

    Women like to (78)_____ in the street to get back confidence.

    In Italy

    People sit in café, (79)_____ with each other, and sometimes they even ask about some (80)_____ information.

    In Swiss

    Ladies eat a lot of fatty (81)______ but they often (82)_____ having done so.

    In the (83)___

    It seems that you can do almost everything (84)____ pushing buttons.

    In England

    The whole nation love to (85)______in a line almost anywhere and anytime.

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  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-03-04
    来源: 江苏省张家港市崇真中学2016-2017学年高二上学期国庆自主检测英语试题 Word版缺答案.doc

    Bike share programs range from small, community-based programs that offer bikes for free use to larger, technology-based services that involve public and private partnerships. Whichever form, they share common goals: fewer traffic jams in large cities, more lasting means of transportation, improved safety of communities and better health for riders.

    While many Europeans have relied on biking as a form of transportation for many years, bikes share programs were introduced in large cities of the U.S. to encourage non-bike riders to join along and make it convenient for people to get around town without having to worry about locking up their bike or maintaining it.

    This original programs that offered free bikes were ruined by theft and vandalism(故意破坏), but newer technology has helped decrease crime. Most large programs have electronic cards, computer or telecommunication tracking, and a system that stores credit card information. Bikes are usually clearly designed or colored so they are immediately recognized and some have parts that won’t work on other bikes. With membership fees at usually around forty dollars every year, they are significantly cheaper than driving and public transportation.

    In the United States, community bike programs have been around for years. Portland’s Yellow Bike Project started in 1994. SmartBike DC, which started in 2008, and over one hundred bikes spread around Washington, D.C. New York City has an experimental bike share program in the summer; Portland, Minneapolis, Arlington, San Francisco, Boston, and Chicago are all intending to start small bike share programs.

    Colleges have also been interested in community bikes. At the University of New England, for instance, students are given a $260 bicycle, for free, in exchange for leaving their car at home with their parents. However, many have had to stop programs due to unreturned bikes and vandalism

    Starting bike share programs isn’t easy. Even the large programs in Europe still face theft and vandalism, and ridership drops during the winter and maintenance fees can add up. One disadvantage in the U.S. is that many communities aren’t set up for biking; they’re set up for driving. Long travels and a lack of bike lanes can’t necessarily be solved with easy-to-access bikes. Yet for those cities that are relatively flat and crowded, bike share programs —and increased bike ridership in general — offer so many benefits you have to wonder if two wheels might be the ride of the future.

    Title: Bike Share Program

    Goals

    ● To 71._____________ traffic jams in large cities

    ● To encourage more lasting means of transportation

    ● To improve safety of communities and riders’ health

    Measures

    ● Most large programs have electronic cards, computer or telecommunication tracking, and a system 72._____________ credit card information.

    ● Bikes are usually clearly designed or colored, so they are easy to

    73. _____________ and some have parts that won’t work on other bikes.

    74. _____________

    ●Portland’s Yellow Bike Project started in 1994

    ● SmartBike DC started in 2008

    ● New York City has an experimental bike share program in the summer

    ● The University of New England gives students a $260 bicycle free of

    75. ______________

    Advantages

    ● It brings 76. _____________ to people getting around town without having to worry about locking up their bike or maintaining it

    ● Biking is not as expensive as driving and public transportation

    77._____________

    ● Bikes are not 78. __________, and they are often destroyed on purpose

    ● Fewer people ride bikes during the winter and maintenance fees can 79.___________.

    ● Many communities are set up for driving 80. ___________ of for biking

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  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-03-03
    来源: 江苏省泰州市第二中学2015-2016学年高一上学期第二次限时作业英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    Day after day you are glued to your computer screen. You cannot get enough of online games, net shopping or cyber surfing. Your social life gets worse, and so does your health. Chances are that you are addicted to the Internet and you need counseling(劝告,建议).

    On November 8, an Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD) diagnostic manual(诊断手册)was approved by a group of psychologists in China, who agreed that Internet addiction is a mental disease. According to a report on Xinhuanet.com, the manual for the first time gives a clear time standard for diagnosing IAD, saying that surfing the Internet for more than six hours a day, not for the purpose of studying or working, and having done so for less than three months, might be a symptom of IAD.

    Addiction symptoms vary

    Besides the long online time, some other symptoms would also help doctors diagnose IAD patients, such as having a strong desire for the Internet and feeling physical discomfort, becoming easily angry, being unable to concentrate on things or finding it difficult to sleep if unable to get online.

    Apart from these conditions, other symptoms are also listed in the manual. If a net surfer cannot get out of the virtual world of Web games, which has already affected his/her capability to study or work, or he/she feels little interest in doing anything but jumping online or is afraid to communicate with others, he/she is also considered to be an IAD sufferer.

    According to the World Health Organization, mental disease sufferers have two major characteristics: they bring suffering to both themselves and their families, and their abilities to be involved in social activities are affected.

    Mental illness stigma污名)

    However, it has resulted in a backlash(反对)from the public, due to the fact that mental disease is a very sensitive term to Chinese.

    Many netizens dropped comments expressing their doubts about the manual, saying that they could not accept they might be suffering from mental illness just because they spent too much time on the Internet.

    Experts said there is a misunderstanding of the manual. Explaining that IAD sufferers are not “crazy people”, they call on society at large to change their understanding of mental disease. Mental disease covers a wide range of psychological or behavioral problems, such as depression.

    New Solutions to Internet Addiction

    Information about IAD

    Problem:

    Internet addiction makes your social life and (81) _____ get worse.

    Standard for diagnosing IAD:

    Internet addiction is a (82) _____ disease when you surf the Internet more than six hours a day for less than three months not to (83) _____ or work.

    (84) _____ addiction symptoms

    They are

    eager to surf the Internet, physically uncomfortable, easy to be angry, unable to concentrate or (85) _____ to sleep.

    unable to get out of the (86) _____ world of Web games, not (87) _____ in doing anything else or afraid to communicate with others.

    (88) _____about mental illness

    Many netizens regard mental disease as a very (89) _____ term.

    Experts think it necessary to (90) _____ mental disease because it covers a wide range.

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-03-03
    来源: 江苏省如皋市2017届高三上学期教学质量调研(三)英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    Very much at the center of the concept of peer pressure is the expression, everybody’s doing it, It is a strong influence of a group, especially of children ,on members of that group to behave as everybody else does. It can be positive or negative. Most people experience it in some way during their lives.

    People are social creatures by nature, and so it is hardly surprising that part of their self-respect comes from the approval of others. This instinct is why the approval of peers, or the fear of disapproval, is such a powerful force in many peoples lives. It is the same instinct that drives people to dress one way at home and another way at work, or to answerfinewhen a stranger asks how are you?enen if it is not necessarily true. There is a practical aspect to this:it helps society to function efficiently and encourages a general level of self-discipline that simplifies day-to day interaction.

    For certain individuals,seeking social acceptance is so important that it becomes like an addiction;in order to satisfy the desire,they may go so far as to abandon their sense of right and wrong. Teens and young adults may feel forced to use drugs ,or join gangs that encourage criminal behavior. Mature adults may sometimes feel pressured to cover up illegal activity at the company where they work,or end up in dedt because they are unable to hold back the desire to buy a house or car that they cant afford in an effort to keep up with the Joneses.

    However,peer pressure is not always negative, A student whose friends are good at academics may be urged to study harder and get good grades. Players on a sports team may feel driven to play harder in order to help the team win. This type of influence can also get a friend off drugs,or to help an adult take up a good habit or drop a bad one. Study groups and class projects are examples of positive peer groups that encourage people to better themselves.

    Schools try to teach kids about the dangers of negative peer pressure. They teach kids to stand up and be themselves, and encourage them to politely decline to do things that they belive are wrong. Similarly,it can be helpful to encourage children to greet the beneficial influence of positive peer groups.

    Concept of peer pressure

    Peer pressure__71____to the strong feeling that

    You must do things the way other people of your age do.

    It___72___in nearly every one of us,and influences us in one way or another,good or bad

    A practical function of peer pressure to_____73_____

    Being social creatures, people expect the approval

    from their ___74_members.

    People around will affect how one lives__75______

    Peer pressure helps society function effciently

    Influences of peer pressure on individuals

    The desire to be socially____76____is like a drug

    Negative influences include lack of moral sense,criminal offences and___77______

    Positive influences are good grades,team___78_____,and the building-up of good habits.

    To ___79_______the danger of negative peer pressure,kids should learn to be independent when

    Necessary,and say no to anything that is wrong or

    _____80_____

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:4 入库时间:2017-03-03
    来源: 江苏省如东中学、前黄高级中学、栟茶高级中学、马塘中学四校2017届高三12月联考英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    How traffic affects our health

       When taking about traffic problems, we also need to take into consideration the pollution that we are exposed to and the health problems traffic causes. Given below is an in-depth exposition on how traffic affects our health and what can do to avoid some of these effects to live a longer and healthier life.

    Aches and Pains

       Driving in a slouched(无精打采的)position puts pressure on your back and neck. Back pain is often due to poor posture which can have a negative effect on your health. Your bad posture also puts stress on the joints of your elbows and knees causing pain and tiredness to these areas of your body.

       When you are driving in traffic, you are constantly shifting between the accelerator and brake(in automatic transmission cars), and clutch, brake, and accelerator(in manual transmission cars). This constant shifting puts pressure and stress on your knees, causing knee-related problems and aches.

    What can you do?

       You can counteract these ill effects and posture problems by sitting upright and having a support for your lower back and neck. Adjust the position of your seat in such a way that you can drive at ease without any discomfort. The backrest of the seat should be straight up, and not pulled down too much.

    Respiratory(呼吸的)Problems

    Exposure to heavy traffic implies exposure to poisonous gases that are emitted by vehicles. It is believed that the transportation sector in the US is responsible for a quarter of the country’s greenhouse gas emissions.

    Our lungs are like sponges, soaking in everything that is breathed in by our respiratory system. The smoke coming out of the tailpipes of vehicles presents a serious threat to human health. prolonged exposure to traffic emissions can cause various respiratory diseases including lung cancer.

    What can you do?

    There are ways to avoid breathing in polluted air. If you can, avoid driving in parts of your town with heavy traffic congestion. However, if you find yourself driving through such areas, roll up your car windows to minimize exposure to harmful gases. If you plan to go out for a walk or run, do it in a place where you get loads of fresh air. Eat foods that are rich in antioxidants(抗氧化剂), and exercise regularly so that your immune system is strong enough to fight off potential threats to your health.

    Travel and traffic are two things that are absolutely unavoidable, and that is why we should try to be as comfortable as possible, to be stress-free and illness-free!

    How traffic affects our health

    Passage outline

    Supporting details

    Lead-in

    When it(71)______to traffic problems, we should pay enough attention to the pollution we are exposed to and the health problems that traffic causes

    Aches and Pains

    Problems

    (72)_______a poor position when you are driving can affect your health badly in several ways such as back, neck, even the joints of your elbows and knees.

    Shifting posture constantly in the (73)________of driving will put pressure and stress on your knees, causing aches and pains.

    Solutions

    You can sit upright and have a support for your lower back and neck.

    You can make(74)__________to the position of your seat.

    You can (75)_________the backrest of your seat and avoid pulling it down too much.

    Respiratory Problems

    Problems

    It is believed that the transportation sector is to(76)_______for a quarter of greenhouse gas emissions in the US.

    Our lungs breath in harmful elements in the smoke from vehicles, damaging our health seriously.

    Long exposure to dangerous pollutants from vehicles can cause various lung-related disease, lung cancer (77)_________.

    Solutions

    You should try to drive through the areas(78)_________from heavy traffic congestion.

    You must wind up your car windows to keep exposure to harmful pollutants to the (79)____________.

    You should choose a place where you get loads of fresh air to take a walk or have a run.

    You must attach(80)________to your diet and regular exercise to fight off potential threats to your health.

    Conclusion

    We should try to be stress-free and illness-free while driving or traveling.

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-03-02
    来源: 江苏省清江中学2016-2017学年高一上学期周练(11.19)英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

        When difficult people express themselves orally, they generally want at least two things;they've been heard and they've been understand. As a good communicator should be a good listener, five steps are advocated toward good listening. 
        The first step is cooperating (
    合作). How does a difficult person know that you're listening and understanding? In fact, it's through the way you look and sound while he is talking. You may help him to fully express his thoughts and feelings. You do this by nodding your head in agreement, making certain sounds of understanding. 
        When the person begins to repeat what's been said, it's signal of Step Two: turning back. It means that you repeat back some words he is using, sending a clear signal that you're listening carefully and that you think what he is saying is important. 
        Having heard what he has to say, the next step is clarifying. At this point, you start to gather information about what is being communicated. Ask some open-ended questions, which will allow you to figure out his intention.
        The fourth step is to summarize what you've heard. This allows you to make sure that both you and the difficult person are on the same page. When you do this, two things happen. First, if you've missed something. he can fill in the details, Second, you’ve shown that you're making an effort to understand completely. This increases the possibility of gaining cooperation from him. 
        Having listened carefully, you've now arrived at the point of confirming that he feels satisfied that his thoughts have been fully voiced. Ask if he feels understood. 
        When enough sincere listening, questioning, and remembering are brought together, understanding is usually achieved and a difficult person becomes less difficult and more cooperative.

    Topic

    1      to understand

    Reason

    Difficult people hope they have been heard and (2)       when they express themselves.

    3    on listening

    ◆(4)______ in agreement and make some sounds of understanding 
    while a difficult person is speaking. 
    ◆Repeat some (5)______ that you have heard. 
    ◆Collect information about the person's expressions and find his (6)______. 
    ◆Give a (7)______ of what the person has said. 
    ◆Confirm that the person gains (8)______with you because you speaking his thoughts.

    Result

    A difficult person will be (9)______ to cooperate with if understanding is achieved.

    Comment

    You may unlock the doors to difficult people's (10)        after you listen and understand

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-03-01
    来源: 江苏省清江中学2016-2017学年高一上学期周考英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    Passion has somehow become a funny thing.  At first it's commonly defined as a love you have for something; something you may do during your free time. But today, passion goes beyond that. With people living the seemingly perfect life, passion has become the gateway to freedom, the ability to design and create the lifestyle you wanted. It is the fire that burns inside of you. It makes everything in life feel right and meaningful and it gives you a sense of identity.

    But people today have some misunderstandings of what passion is.

    You have to be extremely good at it. How often is it today that you hear of this or that inspiring guy who created a business out of passion or does what he loves every day? It's easy to think that that person is really good at what he does.  Absolutely right? Not really.  Passion isn't a competition where you keep getting better and then show off to people how great you are. Passion is a feeling. Like love, when it comes to you, you enjoy it and let it flow. It is this feeling that is all you need.

    It has to be acceptable in the eyes of others. Some people think that passion needs to be acceptable, and it must meet the expectations of others or you may come across as crazy. It also has to be acceptable for the possible future of making a living out of it. Again, no. Passion can be anything you want. As long as you attain that special feeling which makes everything alright in life, it's absolutely okay. Nothing else matters then.

    It will make you money. Inspiring as it is to hear of people making a full­time income from what they love, the truth is, it's not guaranteed that passion can make money for you. Do you think people would want to pay you if your passion is say,  sitting in front of the TV eating chips? Doubtful. There is a veritable(不折不扣的) gap which your passion needs to cross to enter the world where rules of life and society apply. And this gap requires a lot of effort and creative thinking to cross.

    Passion is simply you.  It's your choice to start finding one and holding on to it. It can and will give you that special feeling and raise you to greatness.With a little effort, you can easily find one.And it's something you'll never forget in life.

    Title

    Passion     

    Definitions

    Before

    •A love you have for something; something you do when you are (71)________

    Today

    •The gateway to freedom, the ability to pursue your wanted lifestyle.

    •The gateway to freedom, the ability to pursue your wanted lifestyle.

    •The fire (72)________ inside of you that makes everything feel right and meaningful.

    Three (73) ________

    •You must be extremely good at it.

    Passion is a feeling rather than a (74)________ in which to keep getting better and show off your greatness.

    •Others must (75)________ your passion.

    Passion can be anything you want (76)________ you feel it makes everything alright in life.

    •It will make you money.

    Passion is not (77)________ to make money for you and you need to make great efforts and think (78)________ to cross the gap.

    (79)________

    With some effort, it is (80)________ for you to find a passion, which is likely to make you feel special and great.

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-03-01
    来源: 江苏省清江中学2016-2017学年高一上学期周测(12.17)英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

      Day after day you are glued to your computer screen. You cannot get enough of online games, net shopping or cyber surfing. Your social life gets worse, and so does your health. Chances are that you are addicted to(沉迷于) the Internet and you need counseling(劝告,建议).

           On November 8, an Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD) diagnostic manual(诊断手册)was approved by a group of psychologists in China, who agreed that Internet addiction is a mental disease. According to a report on Xinhuanet.com, the manual for the first time gives a clear time standard for diagnosing IAD, saying that surfing the Internet for more than six hours a day, not for the purpose of studying or working, and having done so for less than three months, might be a symptom of IAD.

           Addiction symptoms (上瘾症状)differ

           Besides the long online time, some other symptoms would also help doctors diagnose IAD patients, such as having a strong desire for the Internet and feeling physical discomfort, becoming easily angry, being unable to concentrate on things or finding it difficult to sleep if unable to get online.

           Apart from these conditions, other symptoms are also listed in the manual. If a net surfer cannot get out of the virtual (虚拟的)world of Web games, which has already affected his/her capability to study or work, or he/she feels little interest in doing anything but jumping online or is afraid to communicate with others, he/she is also considered to be an IAD sufferer.

           According to the World Health Organization, mental disease sufferers have two major characteristics: they bring suffering to both themselves and their families, and their abilities to be involved in social activities are affected.

           Mental illness stigma(污名)

        However, it has resulted in a backlash(反对)from the public, due to the fact that mental disease is a very sensitive term to Chinese.

         Many netizens dropped comments expressing their doubts about the manual, saying that they could not accept they might be suffering from mental illness just because they spent too much time on the Internet.

         Experts said there is a misunderstanding of the manual. Explaining that IAD sufferers are not “crazy people”, they call on society at large to change their understanding of mental disease. Mental disease covers a wide range of psychological or behavioral problems, such as depression.

    New Solutions to Internet Addiction

    Information about IAD

    ▲Problem:

    Internet addiction makes your social life and (1) _____ get worse.

    ▲Standard for diagnosing IAD:

    Internet addiction is a (2) _____ disease when you surf the Internet more than six hours a day for less than three months not to (3) _____ or work.

    (4)____addiction symptoms

    They are

    ▲eager to surf the Internet, physically uncomfortable, easy to be angry, unable to concentrate or (5) _____ to sleep.

    ▲unable to get out of the (6) _____ world of Web games, not (7) _____ in doing anything else or afraid to communicate with others.

    (8)___on mental illness

    ▲Many netizens regard mental disease as a very (9) _____ term.

    ▲Experts think it necessary to (10) _____ mental disease because it covers a wide range.

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-03-01
    来源: 江苏省清江中学2016-2017学年高一12月月考英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

        It's never too late to right your wrongs,big or small.

    Working as hard as I had been over the years, I had become disconnected from(失去联系的)the people who mattered most to me. I decided to spend a year reconnecting with my friends and relatives and making amends(补偿). I devoted myself to caring for what I called “my unfinished business”, which has helped me become a more attentive husband, father, son and friend —and a happier, more energetic person.
        Now that I’ve had a good opportunity to revisit my past mistakes—and experience the rewards of fixing them—I’d like to share some of the lessons I have learned:
        Have you lost touch with people who were important to you? Are there things you’ve done or not done that are in front of you? Are there people in your life you don’t know how much they meant to you? List your unfinished business and take action to deal with it.
        Instead of trying to put an end to the cold war dividing your family, begin with a small thing you can control. Apologize to your brother for not attending his Super Bowl party. Respond to an e-mail you should have answered a week ago. Write a note or make a call.
        No matter what the wrong is, the most important thing in making it right is your sincerity. If you reach out with a genuine (
    真诚的)heart, your friends will be glad to hear from you again.
        This is the key to learning and growing. Keep a journal, or summarize what you’ve learned in e-mails to friends. The difficulty we face in dealing with our unfinished business can seem impossibly big, but the first step to clearing them can be simple: Again, write a note or make a phone call .Once you discover your fears and get over them, you’ll become a more complete and pleased person.

    Topic: (81) ______too late to right your wrongs

    Introduction

    Have you been disconnected from the people who mattered most to you just because of your hard82__________?
    Here are some of the 3(83)__________ I have learned.

     
    84__________

    Think back to your life

    Make a list of the things you need to do in order to 85__________with friends and relatives.
    The time has come for
    86__________if you want to deal with the unfinished business.

    Start small

    Begin with small things so that you can keep them in 87__________.

    Be sincere

    Sincerity is the 88__________ to improving the relationship. To get in 89__________ with your friends again, you should reach out with your true heart.

    Reflect on(反思) your experience

    To clear the problems, the first step is simply 90__________ a note or making a phone call.

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-03-01
    来源: 江苏省南通中学2016-2017学年高二12月月考英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

        Some students get so nervous before a test, they do poorly even if they know the material. Sian Beilock has studied these highly anxious test-takers.

       Sian Beilock: “They start worrying about the consequences. They might even start worrying about whether this exam is going to prevent them from getting into the college they want. And when we worry, it actually uses up attention and memory resources. I talk about it as your cognitive horsepower that you could otherwise be using to focus on the exam.”

       Professor Beilock and another researcher, Gerardo Ramirez, have developed a possible solution. Just before an exam, highly anxious test-takers spend ten minutes writing about their worries about the test.

       Sain Beilock: “What we think happens is when students put it down on paper, they think about the worst that could happen and they reappraise the situation. They might realize it’s not as bad as they might think it was before and, in truth, it prevents these thoughts from appearing suddenly when they’re actually taking a test.”

    The researchers tested the idea on a group of twenty anxious college students. They gave them two short math tests. After the first one, they asked the students to either sit quietly or write about their feelings about the upcoming second test.

    The researchers added to the pressure. They told the students that those who did well on the second test would get money. They also told them that their performance would affect other students as part of a team effort.

    Professor Beilock says those who sat quietly scored an average of twelve percent worse on the second test. But the students who had written about their fears improved their performance by an average of five percent.

    Next, the researchers used younger students in a biology class. They told them before final exams either to write about their feelings or to think about things unrelated to the test.

    Professor Beilock says highly anxious students who did the writing got an average grade of B+, compared to a B- for those who did not.

    Sain Beilock: “What we showed is that for students who are highly test-anxious, who’d done our writing intervention, all of a sudden there was no relationship between test anxiety and performance. Those students most prone to worry were performing just as well as their classmates who don’t normally get nervous in these testing situations.”

    But what if students do not have a chance to write about their fears immediately before an exam or presentation? Professor Beilock says students can try it themselves at home or in the library and still improve their performance.

    Title: Overcoming test 71.______________

    Problem

    Some students get nervous before a test, so they can’t do 72. __________ even if they know the material.

    Reason

    73.__________ about the consequences 74.__________ them their attention and memory resources.

    Solution

    Write down their worries to 75.________ the negative thoughts appearing suddenly.

    Results of the researches

    College students: 76. _______ with those sitting quietly, students writing about their fears improved their performance.

    Younger students: highly anxious students who did the writing instead of  77.________ things unrelated to the test got 78. _______ grades.

    79.___________ ways to solve the problem

    If students have no 80.__________ to write about their fears immediately  they can try it themselves at home or in the library.

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-02-26
    来源: 湖南省长沙市第一中学2016-2017学年高二上学期模块检测3英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

        Laughter is a key component of a happy life, and it has powerful physical and mental benefits. No matter what you’re facing, you can learn to laugh and benefit from it.

    One of the many benefits of laughter and a sense of humor is that they protect you against the negatives of life. Researches show that people who use humor to fight stress feel less lonely and more positive about themselves.

    Although we cant say that a certain number of laughs every day will keep the doctor away, studies show that people who laugh a lot tend to be in good health. And laughter is one of the most commonly used therapies (疗法) among cancer patients.

    Laughter could be healthy for your heart, too. Some research shows that when you laugh, there is an increase in oxygen-rich blood flow in your body, possibly due to the release of endorphins (内啡肽), which create a chemical rush that fights negative feelings and stress. Activities that increase endorphins include a good workout and listening to music you love.

    Love the benefits of laughter but dont feel like laughing? Sometimes you have to make an effort to laugh. If youre facing tough times, it may help to learn techniques to bring the benefits of laughter into your life. You can try the old recommendations:

    Read a funny book, or watch a movie that is funny.

    Spend time with an amusing friend.

    Look on the light side: Go to places that help you remember good times that have made you laugh in the past.

    Or you can join the laughter movement to learn about the benefits of laughter while fighting stress.

    Title: The benefits of 71 .______

    Benefits

    Mental benefits

       * 72.______ you against the negatives of your life

       * Making you feel less lonely and more 73. ______ about yourself

    74.______benefits

       * Helping to lead a healthy life

       * Being commonly used to treat 75. ______

       * 76. ______ the oxygen-rich blood flow in your body

    Recommendations to bring laughter 77.______

    * Read a funny book, or watch 78._______.

    * Spend time with 79.______.

    * Look on the 80. ______ go to places that have made you laugh

    * Join the laughter movement while fighting stress

    Conclusion.

    Laughter is a key component of a happy life, and it has powerful benefits.

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:1 入库时间:2017-02-21
    来源: 广西钦州市钦州港区2017届高三12月月考英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    In a study just published in the journal Intelligence, using search terms such as “stupid thing to do”, Balazs Aczel and his colleagues compiled a collection of stories describing stupid mistakes from sources such as The Huffington Post and TMZ. The researchers then had a sample of university students rate each story on the responsibility of the people involved, the influence of the situation, the seriousness of the consequences, and other factors.

    Analyses of the subjects’ ratings revealed three varieties of stupid mistakes. The first is when a person’s confidence goes beyond their skill, as when a Pittsburgh man robbed two banks in broad daylight without wearing a disguise, believing that lemon juice he had rubbed on his face would make him invisible to security cameras.

    The confidence-skill disconnection has been named the Dunning-Kruger effect, after a study by social psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger. Dunning and Kruger had Cornell undergraduates perform tests of humor, logic, and grammar, and then rate how well they think they performed compared to other subjects in the study. The worst performing subjects, whose scores put them in the 12th percentile, estimated that they had performed in the 62nd percentile. Summarizing the findings, Dunning noted, “Poor performers—and we are all poor performers at some things—fail to see the flaws in their thinking or the answers they lack.” When we think we are at our best is sometimes when we are at our objective worst.

    As any number of political scandals illustrate, the second type of stupid mistake involves impulsive acts—when we seem unable to keep our behavior in check. In the scandal that became known as Weinergate, former U.S. representative Anthony Weiner sent blue texts and pictures of himself to women he met on Facebook. (After resigning, Weiner continued his cyber-dalliances, and then fell prey to the Dunning-Kruger effect when he overestimated his support in the 2013 New York City mayoral primary; he received 5% of the vote.)

    The final variety of stupid mistake involves failing to concentrate—Homer Simpsonesque D’oh moments. As arguably the best example from American sports history, in the 1929 Rose Bowl, University of California star Roy Riegels recovered a fumble(失误球) and returned it 65 yards the wrong way. Riegel’s mistake set up a safety for Georgia Tech, which turned out to be the deciding factor in the opponent’s victory. Aczel and colleagues’ analyses revealed that subjects viewed this category of stupid mistake as the least stupid.

    It is, of course, unrealistic to think that we could ever eliminate human error. To err will always be human. However, this research gives us a better description of our failings and weaknesses, and a place to start in thinking about interventions and prescriptions to help us err less. This research also reminds us of our shared human weaknesses. We all tend to overestimate our abilities, to make impulsive decisions, and to fail to keep attention. This simple realization makes stupid mistakes seem, perhaps, a little less stupid — and a little more human.

    Title: Why you make breathtakingly stupid mistakes

    (71)_____of the research

    Compiling stories about stupid mistakes from some sources.

    Rating the stories on the factors like responsibilities, influences, etc.

    (72)__________ how the subjects rate the stories.

    Types of stupid mistakes

    Confidence – skill

    disconnection

    It happens when confidence (73)______ skill.

    Eg: A man rubbing lemon juice on his face robbed banks by (74)______his head in the sand like an ostrich ( 鸵鸟).

    The outcome may be just the (75)_________ when we overestimate our skills.

    Impulsive acts

    We cannot put our behavior under (76)____________.

    Eg. Weiner disturbed women by sending blue texts and pictures, which put him at a disadvantage in mayoral primary.

    (77)__________ of attention

    Though viewed as the least stupid, it can be a deciding factor in may cases. Eg. Roy Riegel’s running the wrong way with a fumble (78)_________ for Geogia Tech winning the game.

    Values of the research

    Providing us with a clear image of our failings and weaknesses.

    Helping us err less though we are (79)__________ to stay away from error.

    Enabling us to evaluate our abilities objectively, make rational decisions and always get (80)_______________.

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    来源: 江苏省沭阳县潼阳中学2017届高三上学期第一次月考英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    Have you ever been so absorbed in a conversation at a party that you failed to notice that someone new is standing only six inches away from you, trying to get your attention? It’s possible that you were so distracted that you didn’t notice someone approaching you. But it’s also entirely likely that you were experiencing change blindness.

           Change blindness is a phenomenon that occurs when a person is unable to notice visual changes in their environment, despite the fact that they are often rather obvious. In cases of change blindness, the person isn’t failing to notice small or insignificant changes, but will probably miss big changes, like someone standing next to them waving their hand.

           Early experiments with change blindness focused largely on memory and perception when viewing pictures. For example, a person might be shown a photograph of a street scene in Egypt and told to memorize the image. Following that, they would be shown the same picture with certain elements added or taken away and asked to identify what’s different. Very often the individual could recall the larger aspects of the picture but couldn’t recognize the smaller changes.

           In the 1990s, researcher Daniel Simons conducted a fascinating study into change blindness that many people find unbelievable. In Simons’ study, he asked participants to watch a video of a basketball being passed around between several people, with a particular focus on the basketball itself. When the experiment was over, Simons found that a large number of participants were so focused on watching the basketball being passed around that they failed to notice a man in a gorilla suit jumping around in front of the camera.

           It’s important to note that the change in Simons’ video wasn’t subtle; the gorilla is very obviously taking up much of the frame. Simons concluded that participants were experiencing inattentional blindness, which is when a person fails to notice a major change because they are so focused on another task. In this case, because participants were asked to focus on the movement of the basketball, their brains prioritized that task in order to do it properly, thereby missing the other things happening in the video.

           In the case of Simons’ study, participants engaged what’s referred to as attentional selection, which is when a person selects certain things to focus on in order to achieve a task and filters out anything that is unrelated to the objective.

           There are a number of theories about what causes a person’s inability to recognize obvious changes in their environment, but most agree that the phenomenon is related to sensory processing. Broadly speaking, our brains have a limited capacity to detect and process everything in our environment. Instead, what the brain does is choose certain things to process, evaluate, and store, which allows other things to be missed or filtered out.

           In simple terms, change blindness has a great deal to do with where a person directs their attention. In the case of the gorilla and the basketball, people focused their attention almost exclusively on one thing, which caused them to miss other elements or changes. Given that attention is often at the root of change blindness, a person’s age or mental and physical health can influence how well they will notice changes in stimuli.

    Change Blindness

    (71)   ▲    of change blindness

    Change blindness is a surprising perceptual phenomenon that occurs when a person recognizes minor changes in scenes while large changes go (72)   ▲   .

    Experiments with change blindness

    The main (73)   ▲    of early experiments was memory and perception.

    Individuals were found to be (74)   ▲    at recalling the smaller details in the same picture previously shown to them.

    Research in the 1990s

    In Simons’ study, participants were asked to pay special attention to the (75)   ▲    basketball, during which time a man wearing a gorilla suit unexpectedly walked through the scene.

    Contrary to popular belief, with their attention fixed on the basketball, many participants reported that the “gorilla” (76)   ▲    their notice.

    It is concluded that participants fail to recognize something big but unrelated to the objective when their brains are programmed to consider some task as a top (77)   ▲   .

    (78)   ▲    of change blindness

    The brain makes (79)   ▲    about what to be dealt with because of its limited capacity.

    Although attention is closely (80)   ▲    to change blindness, age and health are other factors that play a role.

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