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  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-02-21
    来源: 广西钦州市钦州港区2017届高三12月月考英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    In a study just published in the journal Intelligence, using search terms such as “stupid thing to do”, Balazs Aczel and his colleagues compiled a collection of stories describing stupid mistakes from sources such as The Huffington Post and TMZ. The researchers then had a sample of university students rate each story on the responsibility of the people involved, the influence of the situation, the seriousness of the consequences, and other factors.

    Analyses of the subjects’ ratings revealed three varieties of stupid mistakes. The first is when a person’s confidence goes beyond their skill, as when a Pittsburgh man robbed two banks in broad daylight without wearing a disguise, believing that lemon juice he had rubbed on his face would make him invisible to security cameras.

    The confidence-skill disconnection has been named the Dunning-Kruger effect, after a study by social psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger. Dunning and Kruger had Cornell undergraduates perform tests of humor, logic, and grammar, and then rate how well they think they performed compared to other subjects in the study. The worst performing subjects, whose scores put them in the 12th percentile, estimated that they had performed in the 62nd percentile. Summarizing the findings, Dunning noted, “Poor performers—and we are all poor performers at some things—fail to see the flaws in their thinking or the answers they lack.” When we think we are at our best is sometimes when we are at our objective worst.

    As any number of political scandals illustrate, the second type of stupid mistake involves impulsive acts—when we seem unable to keep our behavior in check. In the scandal that became known as Weinergate, former U.S. representative Anthony Weiner sent blue texts and pictures of himself to women he met on Facebook. (After resigning, Weiner continued his cyber-dalliances, and then fell prey to the Dunning-Kruger effect when he overestimated his support in the 2013 New York City mayoral primary; he received 5% of the vote.)

    The final variety of stupid mistake involves failing to concentrate—Homer Simpsonesque D’oh moments. As arguably the best example from American sports history, in the 1929 Rose Bowl, University of California star Roy Riegels recovered a fumble(失误球) and returned it 65 yards the wrong way. Riegel’s mistake set up a safety for Georgia Tech, which turned out to be the deciding factor in the opponent’s victory. Aczel and colleagues’ analyses revealed that subjects viewed this category of stupid mistake as the least stupid.

    It is, of course, unrealistic to think that we could ever eliminate human error. To err will always be human. However, this research gives us a better description of our failings and weaknesses, and a place to start in thinking about interventions and prescriptions to help us err less. This research also reminds us of our shared human weaknesses. We all tend to overestimate our abilities, to make impulsive decisions, and to fail to keep attention. This simple realization makes stupid mistakes seem, perhaps, a little less stupid — and a little more human.

    Title: Why you make breathtakingly stupid mistakes

    (71)_____of the research

    Compiling stories about stupid mistakes from some sources.

    Rating the stories on the factors like responsibilities, influences, etc.

    (72)__________ how the subjects rate the stories.

    Types of stupid mistakes

    Confidence – skill

    disconnection

    It happens when confidence (73)______ skill.

    Eg: A man rubbing lemon juice on his face robbed banks by (74)______his head in the sand like an ostrich ( 鸵鸟).

    The outcome may be just the (75)_________ when we overestimate our skills.

    Impulsive acts

    We cannot put our behavior under (76)____________.

    Eg. Weiner disturbed women by sending blue texts and pictures, which put him at a disadvantage in mayoral primary.

    (77)__________ of attention

    Though viewed as the least stupid, it can be a deciding factor in may cases. Eg. Roy Riegel’s running the wrong way with a fumble (78)_________ for Geogia Tech winning the game.

    Values of the research

    Providing us with a clear image of our failings and weaknesses.

    Helping us err less though we are (79)__________ to stay away from error.

    Enabling us to evaluate our abilities objectively, make rational decisions and always get (80)_______________.

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-01-26
    来源: 江苏省沭阳县潼阳中学2017届高三上学期第一次月考英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    Have you ever been so absorbed in a conversation at a party that you failed to notice that someone new is standing only six inches away from you, trying to get your attention? It’s possible that you were so distracted that you didn’t notice someone approaching you. But it’s also entirely likely that you were experiencing change blindness.

           Change blindness is a phenomenon that occurs when a person is unable to notice visual changes in their environment, despite the fact that they are often rather obvious. In cases of change blindness, the person isn’t failing to notice small or insignificant changes, but will probably miss big changes, like someone standing next to them waving their hand.

           Early experiments with change blindness focused largely on memory and perception when viewing pictures. For example, a person might be shown a photograph of a street scene in Egypt and told to memorize the image. Following that, they would be shown the same picture with certain elements added or taken away and asked to identify what’s different. Very often the individual could recall the larger aspects of the picture but couldn’t recognize the smaller changes.

           In the 1990s, researcher Daniel Simons conducted a fascinating study into change blindness that many people find unbelievable. In Simons’ study, he asked participants to watch a video of a basketball being passed around between several people, with a particular focus on the basketball itself. When the experiment was over, Simons found that a large number of participants were so focused on watching the basketball being passed around that they failed to notice a man in a gorilla suit jumping around in front of the camera.

           It’s important to note that the change in Simons’ video wasn’t subtle; the gorilla is very obviously taking up much of the frame. Simons concluded that participants were experiencing inattentional blindness, which is when a person fails to notice a major change because they are so focused on another task. In this case, because participants were asked to focus on the movement of the basketball, their brains prioritized that task in order to do it properly, thereby missing the other things happening in the video.

           In the case of Simons’ study, participants engaged what’s referred to as attentional selection, which is when a person selects certain things to focus on in order to achieve a task and filters out anything that is unrelated to the objective.

           There are a number of theories about what causes a person’s inability to recognize obvious changes in their environment, but most agree that the phenomenon is related to sensory processing. Broadly speaking, our brains have a limited capacity to detect and process everything in our environment. Instead, what the brain does is choose certain things to process, evaluate, and store, which allows other things to be missed or filtered out.

           In simple terms, change blindness has a great deal to do with where a person directs their attention. In the case of the gorilla and the basketball, people focused their attention almost exclusively on one thing, which caused them to miss other elements or changes. Given that attention is often at the root of change blindness, a person’s age or mental and physical health can influence how well they will notice changes in stimuli.

    Change Blindness

    (71)   ▲    of change blindness

    Change blindness is a surprising perceptual phenomenon that occurs when a person recognizes minor changes in scenes while large changes go (72)   ▲   .

    Experiments with change blindness

    The main (73)   ▲    of early experiments was memory and perception.

    Individuals were found to be (74)   ▲    at recalling the smaller details in the same picture previously shown to them.

    Research in the 1990s

    In Simons’ study, participants were asked to pay special attention to the (75)   ▲    basketball, during which time a man wearing a gorilla suit unexpectedly walked through the scene.

    Contrary to popular belief, with their attention fixed on the basketball, many participants reported that the “gorilla” (76)   ▲    their notice.

    It is concluded that participants fail to recognize something big but unrelated to the objective when their brains are programmed to consider some task as a top (77)   ▲   .

    (78)   ▲    of change blindness

    The brain makes (79)   ▲    about what to be dealt with because of its limited capacity.

    Although attention is closely (80)   ▲    to change blindness, age and health are other factors that play a role.

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-01-25
    来源: 江苏省如东高级中学2016-2017学年高一10月阶段测试英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    Most people have some regret that they just can’t seem to get rid of. But holding on to regret about the past that can’t be changed can have a bad effect on the possibility of a happy future. Regret is a waste of time, emotion and energy. To make sure that your life is a successful one, you need to take action to live in a way that you have no regret holding you back.

    Some people make very big decisions with very little consideration at all, and as a result they often regret their decisions. Before choosing a college major, getting married or accepting a job, you must carefully consider all conditions and make a wise decision rather than a careless one. Big decisions aren’t the only ones that require forethought (预先考虑), though. Before you become angry and say something you will regret later, think about what you’re going to say.

    Some things will be easy to do and some will be hard, but keep your eyes on the prize of living a successful life without regret, and you’ll find that achieving your goals might be easier than you think. But don’t just daydream about those goals — make an actual list, written down in black and white, and refer to it now and then to see what you have left to do.

    When you’re feeling happy and full of energy, taking care of yourself isn’t a problem. But in those days when you feel like crawling under the bed and never coming out again, you still must take care of yourself. You can do what you want and don’t get angry with yourself about your weaknesses. On the contrary, you just admit them and try to change them and move on. Improving your mental health is just as important as taking care of yourself physically.

    Keep those who are important to you very close and be sure to let them know how important they are to you. Family, friends, co-workers and people who are as close as your families are your lifelines that you can depend on whenever you need them to help you remember what’s important in life. You should make sure of repairing your relationships with your friends if something bad happens.

    Last but not least, learn to give yourself some relaxation and not to waste your time regretting things you cannot change. Treat those things properly and move on. Life is hard, but it is precious. Don’t waste time regretting the past, or your future will get here before you know it.

    Title

    Living without regret

    Theme

    Regret is a normal part of life. What you should do is to take action to make your life a (71)       without regret.

    (72)       for getting rid of regret

    l         Regret about the past can badly (73)       your possible happy future.

    l         Regret wastes time, emotion and energy.

    (74)     

    (75)       twice before you act.

    Take everything into (76)       consideration before making decisions or saying something.

    List the things you want to do.

    l         Focus your eyes on the things which will bring you happiness.

    l         Put your (77)      into practice.

    Take care of yourself.

    Make sure that you are in good (78)       both physically and mentally.

    Keep close relationships.

    Keep close to those who are (79)       to you.

    Don’t care about small things.

    Don’t regret things that cannot be (80)       and treasure the present-day life.

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-01-25
    来源: 江苏省淮安市淮海中学2017届高三上学期第一次阶段测试(10月)英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    Atlantis, a beautiful and wealthy island, is supposed to have existed over 11, 000 years ago. It was in the middle of the vast Atlantic Ocean, and was a centre for trade. Its people were very wealthy and powerful. The rulers of Atlantis controlled their people and land, and their power spread to Europe and Africa.

        The weather was very good in Atlantis, and therefore people could grow food all year around. Many different kinds of vegetables, fruits and nuts grew there, and a lot of different animals lived on the island, including elephants.

        Atlantis was the home of Poseidon, the Greek God of the Sea. Poseidon had five sets of twin boys, who became the first rulers of Atlantis. The island’s many hills, fields and rivers were divided between the ten brothers. The eldest son, Atlas, was the first king of Atlantis. He controlled the island’s central hill and its surrounding area.

        At the top of the central hill, a temple was built in honor of Atlas’s father, Poseidon. Inside the temple was a huge gold statue of Poseidon. The rulers of Atlantis discussed laws in the temple.

    For centuries the people of Atlantis lived simple, honest and happy lives. However, over time they began to change. They enjoyed the power they had and desired more of it. When the God Zeus saw how corrupt (腐败) the people of Atlantis were, he was very angry and gathered the other gods together to decide on a punishment for them. The gods agreed with Zeus and decided to sink the island. In one short day and a half, the island of Atlantis, its people and its memory―a whole civilization―were destroyed forever, swallowed up by the sea.

    Atlantis: The (71)   ▲   Island

    Brief

    (72)  ▲  of the island 

    It is a beautiful and wealthy island.

    It is supposed to have existed over 11,000 years ago.

    (73)  ▲   in the middle of the Atlantic oceanit became a center for trade.

    The rulers of it got its people and land (74)  ▲   control.

    Weather on the island 

    ●  It had very good weather.

    ●  It was suitable to grow food (75)  ▲   the year.

    ●  It was rich in fruits, vegetables and animals, elephants (76)  ▲  .

    Stories about the island

    It was the home of Poseidon, the Greek God of the Sea.

    Poseidon’s five sets of sons became the first rulers of Atlantis.

    The ten brothers divided its hills, fields and rivers between themselves.

    The eldest son, Atlas was the first to (77)  ▲   the island.

    A temple was built on the top of the central hill in honor of Poseidon. 

    (78)  ▲   for the sinking of  the island

    People’s (79)  ▲   to enjoy more power made them corruptive.

    Zeus gathered the other Gods to decide to (80)  ▲   them, by sinking the island, which was swallowed up by the sea in one and a half days.   

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-01-24
    来源: 江苏省赣榆县第一中学2016-2017学年高二上学期第一次月考(10月)英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    A lecturer was giving a lecture to his students on stress management. He raised a glass of water and asked the audience, ”How heavy do you think this glass of water is?”

    All of the students tried to answer, and their answers ranged from 20g to 500g.

    It does not matter on the absolute weight. It depends on how long you hold it. If I hold it for a minute, it is OK. If I hold it for an hour, I will have an ache in my right arm. If I hold it for a day, you will have to call an ambulance. It is the exact same weight, but the longer I hold it, the heavier it becomes.

    If we carry our burdens all the time, sooner or later, we will not be able to carry on, the burden is becoming increasingly heavier.

    What you have to do is to put the glass down and rest for a while before holding it up again.” We have to put down the burden periodically(周期性地), so that we can be refreshed and are able to carry on. Otherwise I think that we will break down on the half way and can’t realize our dreams as we planned. All of us should really keep this in mind.

    So, before you return home from work tonight, put the burden of work down. Don’t carry it back home. You can pick it up tomorrow.

    Whatever burdens you are having now on your shoulders, let it down for a moment if you can. If you do like this, you can greatly improve your work efficiency(效率) and life quality.

    Life is short; let’s enjoy it to the fullest!

    Title

    l         How to Relax Ourselves

    Theme

    l         Put down the burden to get (66)_____________

    The lecturer’s question

    l         How heavy is the glass of water?

    l         The question was raised on (67) ___________ stress.

    The students’ answers

    l         The students gave answers ranging from 20gto 500g.

    The lecturer’s explanations

    l         The weight of the glass of water (68) ______ on the time of holding it.

    l         The longer you hold it, the heavier it will become.

    l         Hold it for a minute, and you will feel (69) _____________.

    l         If you hold it for an hour, your right arm will ache.

    l         An ambulance will have to be (70)________ if you hold it for a day.

    l         If we carry the burden too long, we will be (71)___________ to carry on.

    The methods to relax

    l         To relax, you must put the glass down.

    l         After a(72) __________, hold the glass up again.

    l         Put down the burden(73)__________ to get refreshed to carry on.

    The writer’s (74)_______

    l         Put down the burden of work before you go home and pick it up tomorrow.

    l         Let down the burden on your (75)_________ to rest for a while.

    l         Enjoy your life

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-01-24
    来源: 江苏省阜宁中学2016-2017学年高二10月月考(学情调研)英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    Laughter makes you feel good. And the good feeling that you get when you laugh remains with you even after the laughter disappears. Humor helps you keep a positive, optimistic outlook through difficult situations, disappointments, and loss.

    More than just a pause from sadness and pain, laughter gives you the courage and strength to find new sources of meaning and hope. Even in the most difficult of times, a laugh –-- or even simply a smile–can go a long way toward making you feel better. And laughter really is contagious (有传染的)—just hearing laughter primes your brain and readies you to smile and join in the fun.

    Laughter strengthens our relationships by bringing positive feelings and building emotional connections. When we laugh with one another, a positive bond is created. This bond fights stress, disagreements, and disappointment.

    Shared laughter is one of the most effective tools for keeping relationships fresh and exciting. All emotional sharing builds strong and lasting relationship bonds. Laughter unites people during difficult times.

    Having more humor and play into your daily interactions can improve the quality of your love relationships— as well as your connections with co-workers, family members, and friends.

    Laughter is your birthright, a natural part of life that is inborn. Little babies begin smiling during the first weeks of life and laugh out loud within months of being born. Even if you did not grow up in a family where laughter was a common sound, you can learn to laugh at any stage of life.

    One essential characteristic that helps us laugh is not taking ourselves too seriously. We’ve all known someone who takes everything with deathly seriousness and never laughs at anything. No fun there!

    The ability to laugh, play, and have fun with others not only makes life more enjoyable but also helps you solve problems, connect with others, and be more creative. People who include humor and play into their daily lives find that it renews them and all of their relationships.

    Life brings challenges that can either get the best of you or become playthings for your imagination. When you “become the problem” and take yourself too seriously, it can be hard to think outside the box and find new solutions. But when you play with the problem, you can often transform it into an opportunity for creative learning.

    Title: Laughter is good for you

    71      of laughter

    l   Laughter can make you courageous and73      to find new sources of meaning and hope in life.

    l   Laughter can74      a positive bond, which can help to 75      stress, disagreements and disappointment.

    l   Laughter can keep relationships fresh and exciting

    Ways to bring laughter to life

    l   Humans are76      with the ability to laugh.

    l   You can acquire the ability to laugh by77      at any stage of life.

    l   Take yourself78      seriously to develop your sense of humor.

    72     

    Laughter can bring a more79      life, better problem-solving abilities, stronger80      with others, and more creativity.

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-01-24
    来源: 江苏省东海县石榴高级中学2016-2017学年高一上学期第一次学情检测英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    Whenever we meet with difficulty or failure, teachers, parents or others often say to us or perhaps we say to ourselves, “Never give up.” These can be encouraging words and words of determination. A person who believes in himself will keep trying to reach his goal no matter how many times he fails. In my opinion, the quality of determination to succeed is an important one to have. Therefore, I believe that we should never give up.

       One reason is that if we give up too easily, we will rarely achieve anything. It is not unusual for us to fail in our first attempt at something new, so we should not feel disappointed and should try again. Besides, if we always give up when we fail, we will not be able to develop new skills and grow.

       Another reason we should never give up is that we can learn from our mistakes so that we can not make the same ones. If we do not try again, the lesson we have learned is wasted.

     Finally, we should never give up because as we work to reach our goals, we develop confidence, and this confidence can help us succeed in other areas of our lives. If we never challenge ourselves, we will begin to doubt our abilities.

     In short, it is important that we do not give up when working for our goals. Whether we succeed in the end or not, we will learn something, and what we learn will help us to become better and more confident. Furthermore, if we give up, we have no chance of attaining our goals any more, but if we keep making great efforts, there is always a chance that we will succeed one day.

    Topic: Never Give Up

    Possible meanings and the author’s opinions

    ♣ The words “Never give up” can__71__ others or oneself and express one’s determination.

    ♣ A person who wants to succeed should have the___72___ of determination. So we should never give up.

    ______73____

    ♣If we give up too easily, maybe we will achieve ____74___, so when we fail in our first attempt at something new, we should not___75___ ourselves but try again.

    ♣ Always giving up means that we will not be able to ___76____ any progress.

    ♣ Never giving up will make us learn from the mistakes we’ve made before and learn the __77____ so as not to make the same mistakes.

    ♣ To reach our goals and develop the confidence which can help us ___78____ourselves, we must not give up but challenge ourselves.

    Conclusions

    If you give up, you will have no_79____of reaching your goals. Never give up and you will ___80____ sooner or later.

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-01-23
    来源: 江苏省丹阳高级中学2016-2017学年高二10月月考英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

      Zebras have their own bug repellent(驱虫剂)?

       Eww bugs! They are so annoying! We humans are lucky that we can apply repellents to avoid nasty bites. But what’s an animal to do? They have no choice but to spend their days shooing (赶走)them off with their tails, unless, of course, they are zebras, who apparently have their own automatic repellent--- their striped skin!

    Scientists had originally thought that the reason why the animal had developed the black and white lines was to help protect itself from predators (食肉动物)in the African savannah(大草原), because the stripes make it difficult to single out one zebra that is traveling with a herd.While that may be true, the theory has never been tested or proven. Now the experts have another---that the stripes have evolved to repel the annoying horse flies that not only feed off their blood, but also, transmit dangerous germs into the bodies of these innocent animals.

    The study was performed by a team of Swedish scientists. One of the clues that got them thinking along these lines was the fact that darker horses got bitten more often than light-colored or white ones.

    The fact that zebras are born black and only develop stripes as they grow older made the scientists theorize that the stripes may be something the animals have developed to make themselves less attractive to flies.

    To test if this may be the case, they painted some boards at a horse-infested(寄生的) horse farm in Budapest with patterns of black and white stripes of varying widths and applied a layer of glue on them. What they noticed was that the places where the black and white stripes were at their narrowest (similar to what zebras have) attracted the fewest flies. They achieved similar results when they painted horses with black and white zebra-like stripes.

    While the research are not sure why this may be the case, they believe it may be something to do with the way insects operate---horseflies are attracted to horizontally polarized light(偏振光); since white does not reflect it, white horses are luckier than black ones. But zebras seem to be the luckiest of all. When the researchers measured the polarized light reflected from real zebra skins, they found that it matched light patterns that were the least attractive to horseflies.

    While this theory does make logical sense, nobody is 100 percent sure that it is really true, given that it has never been tested on a real zebra. If it is true, it does raise the question of why a horse, a close relative of the zebra has failed to develop stripes. The researchers believe that this could be because there are more horseflies in Africa, where zebras reside(居住), than anywhere else in the world.

       Title

             Zebras have their own bug repellent?

    Reasons why zebras develop their strips

    Original belief

    With the black and white lines, one zebra is difficult to single out while traveling with a herd, thus ___71___ it from its enemies.

    New theory

    Zebras, residing in Africa where there are most horseflies in the world have developed strips to ___72____ being attacked.

    A study

    Researchers

    A team of scientists from __73___

    __74___

    To test if strips are developed to make zebras less attractive to flies.

    Clues

    *White or light-colored horses are less __75___ to get bitten than dark ones.

    *Zebras develop strips as they grow older though born black.

    Method

    *Some boards at a horse farm are painted with patterns of black and white stripes variously ___76___ , a layer of glue applied on them.

    *Measured the polarized light reflected from real zebra skins.

    ___77___

    *The places where the black and white stripes at the narrowest were similar to the ___78___zebras have attracted the fewest flies.

    *Strips of zebras matched light patterns that were the least attractive to horseflies.

    Principle of zebras’ black and white strips repelling the flies

    Horizontally polarized light, which white does not reflect, ___79___ to horseflies.

    Conclusion

    ___80___tested on real zebras, the theory isn’t definitely true.

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-01-14
    来源: 河北省定州中学2017届高三(高补班)上学期周练(10.16)英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    If you have decided to take some English courses in the UK, there are some exams that you have to take to determine which classes you should be taking. The first exam that you have to take is the Key English Test, which determines how well you can handle speaking English on a day-to-day basis along with written English skills.

    The KET has three parts. They are the basic reading and writing test, the listening exam and the speaking exam. Once you have passed this, you can take the PET exam, which stands for the Preliminary English Test. This test is just for people who already have both basic oral and written skills.

    If you can read such items as newspapers, signs, magazines and books, you may be ready to take the next step. Try practicing your writing skills as well and when you think you have good enough writing skills, take this test. There are three sections to this test, the reading, writing and spoken English comprehension skills.

    Once you have successfully passed the PET test, you can then move on to the more advanced classes and tests, like the FCE, which is the First Certificate Exam. This exam is harder and more advanced than the other tests. If your job depends on English speaking or writing, then this test is a must to pass. You will need to have passed the last two tests in order to take this one. You will also need to have more of a background when it comes to the English language. By passing the FCE, you have showed that your English speaking ability is of high level.

    信息要点:

        55.     to be taken

    Details

    The KET

    (the Key English Test)

    This test contains      56      , the listening exam and the speaking exam.

    The PET

    (the Preliminary English Test)

    This test contains      57      parts: the reading, writing and spoken English comprehension skills.

         58   

    (the First Certificate Exam)

    This exam is     59      of all the tests.

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-01-13
    来源: 河北省定州中学2016-2017学年高一(承智班)上学期周练(10.16)英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    Travelling to all corners of the world gets easier and easier. We live in a global village,  but this doesn't mean that we all behave in the same way.

    How should we behave when you meet someone for the first time? An American shakes your hand firmly while looking you straight in the eye. In many parts of Asia, there is no physical contact () at all. In Japan, you should bow, and the more respect you want to show, the deeper you should bow. In Thailand, people greet each other by pressing both hands together at the chest. In both countries, eye contact is avoided as a sign of respect.

    Many countries have rules about what you should and shouldn't wear. In Korea, you should takeoff your shoes when entering a house. Remember to place them neatly together where you came in.

    In Spain, lunch is often the biggest meal of the day, and can last two or three hours. For this reason many people eat a light breakfast and a late dinner. In Mexico, lunch is a time to relax, and many people prefer not to discuss business as they eat. In Britain, it's not unusual to have a business meeting over breakfast.

    In most countries, an exchange of business cards is necessary for all introductions. You should include your company name and your position. If you are going to a country where your language is not widely spoken, you can get the back side of your card printed in the local language. In China, you may present your card with the writing facing the person you are giving it to.

    Title: Good 45______

    Aspect

    Country

    Custom

    46______

    ·America

    ·Japan

    ·47_ _____

    ·Shaking hands firmly

    ·48______to show respect

    ·Pressing both hands together at the chest

    Dressing

    ·Korea

    ·Taking off your shoes at the 49______

    Eating

    ·Spain

    ·Mexico

    ·50_ _____

    ·Having a light breakfast and a late dinner

    ·Relaxing while having 51______

    ·Holding a business meeting over breakfast

    Doing business

    ·Most countries

    ·China

    ·Exchanging business card when 52_ _____

    yourself

    ·Presenting a card to a person 53_ _____ its front facing him

    Conclusion: When travelling54_ _____, we should follow local customs.

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-01-12
    来源: 河北省定州中学2016-2017学年高二(承智班)上学期周练(10.16)英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    Commercial advertisement was once thought of as a technique of the marketers to inform the potential buyers about the availability of certain products. It was seen more as a medium to inform the buyers rather than persuade them to buy. The present day marketers see advertisement as a medium to damage the image of their competitors and their products. This indeed, is an undesirable and an immoral practice. Instead of speaking about their own products, these marketers speak about the drawbacks (often without any basics) of the competing products.

    People watching TV advertisements would notice that there has always been an advertisement war between the marketers of different consumer goods. A few such cases are given below.

    1. Parachute Coconut Oil vs. V.V.D. Gold

    Some time back, the producer of V.V.D Gold Coconut Oil claimed in their TV advertisement that only their products was superior and the one sold in blue colour bottles (the reference was to Parachute coconut oil) was suitable only for un-natural hair.

    2. Tata Salt vs. Captain Cook

    Tata salt was first iodised (碘处理) salt marketed by an Indian Company. It has been enjoying a good and steady market. Captain Cook, another producer of iodised salt, who entered the market later, had to adopt some strategy to get control of the market. The TV advertisement of Captain Cook stressed on Free flow of their salt when transferred to a container. The producer of Tata Salt retaliated (报复) by saying that the claim of Captain Cook was a trick and those who were quality conscious should deal with it with caution.

    3. Pepsi vs. Coco Cola

    Coca Cola was selected as the official soft drink for the Wills World Cricket 1996. When the cricket series was on, the marketers of Pepsi constantly advertised on TV. Their advertisement gave the idea that the cricketers preferred only Pepsi and as a matter of fact there was nothing official about it.

    4. Horlicks vs. Complan

    Sometime back, the TV advertisement of Complan, a health drink directly attacked Horlicks, which has been in the market for several decades. The claim of Complan was that their brand (which according to them was Brand C) has a higher percentage of ingredients (材料) compared to Brand H (reference was nothing but to Horlicks).

    The above examples clearly show how the technique of advertisement is misused by some marketers to ruin the image of their competitors. This, certainly, is not a healthy trend.

    Any marketer should only speak about his products and not about his competitors products. The awareness of consumers has certainly increased over the years and they are no longer easily taken in. There are many consumer products like salt, oil shaving blades etc. But one thing for sure is that offering the same product in a different container will not make the product different.

    Mass media like Radio, Television and newspaper should not allow advertisements that tell lies. Legal regulations, in this regard, should also be made stricter.

    Comparison of the past and the present of advertisements

    In the past

    At present

    A technique mainly used for offering 55

    A trick used as a means of unfair 56

    The 57 of advertisement

    58

    Products

    Wrong practices

    V.V.D. Gold

    When V.V.D Gold attacked the one sold in blue bottles, it 59to Parachute Coconut oil.

    Captain Cook

    Captain Cook stressed on their free flow when their product was 60to a container.

    Tata Salt

    Tata salt retaliated by warning consumers to be 61about the quality.

    Pepsi

    Too much advertisement on TV seemed to say that the cricketers had a 62for Pepsi.

    Complan

    Brand C claimed that their product was much richer in ingredients in63with Brand H.

    Solutions

    64products. are not allowed to be mentioned in the advertisement.

    Stricter laws should be made to protect every producers and consumers benefits.

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2017-01-11
    来源: 河北省定州中学2016-2017学年高二(承智班)上学期周练(10.9)英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    An Extension of the Human Brain

       Other people can help us compensate for our mental and emotional deficiencies (欠缺)much as a wooden leg can compensate for a physical deficiency. To be exact, other people can extend our intelligence and help us understand and adjust our emotions. When another person helps us in such ways, he or she is participating in what I’ve called a social prosthetic (义肢的)system. Such systems do not need to operate face-to-face, and it’s clear to me that the Internet is expanding the range of my own social prosthetic systems. It’s already a big bank of many minds. Even in its current state, the Internet has extended my memory and judgment.

    Regarding memory: Once I look up something on the Internet, I don’t need to keep all the details for future use—I know where to find that information again and can quickly and easily do so. More generally, the Internet functions as if it were my memory. This function of the Internet is particularly striking when I’m writing; I’m no longer comfortable writing if I’m not connected to the Internet. It’s become natural to check facts as I write, taking a minute or two to dip into PubMed, Wikipedia, or other websites.

    Regarding judgment: The Internet has made me smarter in matters small and large. For example, when I’m writing a textbook, it has become second nature to check a dozen definitions of a key term, which helps me dig into the core and understand its meaning. But more than that, I now regularly compare my views with those of many others. If I have a new idea, I now quickly look to see whether somebody else has already thought of it, or something similar—and I then compare what I think with what others have thought. This certainly makes my own views clearer. Moreover, I can find out whether my reactions to an event are reasonable enough by reading about those of others on the Internet.

    These effects of the Internet have become even more striking since I’ve begun using a smartphone. I now regularly pull out my phone to check a fact, watch a video, read weibo. Such activities fill the spaces that used to be dead time (such as waiting for somebody to arrive for a lunch meeting).

    But that’s the upside (好处). The downside is that in those dead periods I often would let my thoughts flow and sometimes would have an unexpected insight or idea. Those opportunities are now fewer and farther between.

    An Extension of the Human Brain

    A prosthetic nature

    The 57     can help make up for our mental and emotional deficiencies as a wooden leg can compensate for a bodily deficiency.

    It 58     in our daily events, extending our intelligence, comprehending our feelings, and expanding the range of social activities.

    Wonderful aspects: memory and judgment

    On the Internet, we could quickly and easily locate the details, and check facts, without 59     them in mind.

    The Internet makes us smarter over 60     kinds of things. It provides a dozen definitions of a key term for us to find the 61    of the matter.

    The Internet enables us to exchange ideas with many others to 62     our claims, and to 63     our actions.

    The 64     sides of smartphones

    Smartphones make it easier and more 65    to check reality, watch video clips, read weibo.

    Smartphones 66    the possibility for new and insightful minds, and steal away our dead time.

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2016-12-30
    来源: 江苏省扬州中学2016-2017学年高二上学期10月月考试题 英语 Word版含答案.doc

          Often the importance of having dinner with the whole family at the dinner table is strengthened. We are told that “a family that eats together stays together”; we even follow it by making the whole family sit in front of the television while eating. Is it right? Wrong. Television does nothing to help make family relationships better. In fact, it only widens the gap between the members of the family, especially parents and children. It’s thus better to sit at the dinner table. Family dinners should include another important part―conversations that create a pleasant atmosphere. However, it’s often difficult to start a conversation at a family dinner. Moreover, many people make the mistake of raising controversial (有争议的) topics at dinnertime, causing one or more members, or the whole family, to lose their appetite. So it is important to keep in mind some family dinner conversation ideas.

          It often serves well to start the conversation right before dinner so that setting the table and other housework may become less boring. Doing things together, whether it is talking or laying the table, can make family members feel interested so that there are no embarrassing moments when people are actually eating. You can also change the topic if you feel that it might start arguments and destroy everyone’s appetite.

          Children are usually very good at sharing information and don’t know exactly how to reply when you ask them questions like “How was school today?” So make sure you know more about them than just the fact that they go to school―like which book they are reading or movie they watched recently, or ask them about the extracurricular activities that they might be taking part in.

          Family dinners should be positive and conversations during dinnertime should encourage family members to eat well. All controversial topics should be avoided at dinnertime. There are plenty of other times when such topics can be discussed, but dinnertime isn’t the right time. Actually, if you have any funny stories that happened in your daily life, that’s the time when you can have a good laugh over them with others. It is also a good idea to look back on your childhood memories with your family members. They, especially your children, will feel excited about the crazy, sometimes stupid things that you did as children. In short, it is always necessary to choose the right topics for family dinner conversation.

    Family Dinner Conversations

    Paragraph outline

    Supporting details

    (66)     with

    the family dinner

    Watching TV while eating together makes the gap between the

         family members (67)   

    Talking about something controversial while eating

         together results in (68)     of appetite.

    Id   Ideas about

        family dinner

        conversation

    St   Start early

         Begin to talk before dinner to make

           everyone feel (69)    in doing the      

           housework related to the dinner.
    Don’t talk about what may make family

           members (70)    with each other

           and destroy their appetite.

    C   Care about

         children

    You need to have a good (71)      of

        their activities so that you can talk with your

        children about what they did or are doing.

    C   Choose right

        (72)    

    You should make sure that everyone is

        (73)     to eat well by your positive

    Ta  talking.

       You should not say anything that is

         controversial.

       You can (74)      information about

        what happens in your daily life with

        your family members.

         You can talk about your childhood

          stories with your family, which may be

        crazy or even stupid. In a word, there is

        much (75)     to choose the right topics at

        at meals.

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2016-12-21
    来源: 江苏省溧阳市竹箦中学2017届高三上学期期初考试英语试题 Word版含解析.doc

    Throw the bottles and boxes of drugs out of your house. A new theory suggests that medicine could be bad for your health, which should at least come as good news to people who cannot afford to buy expensive medicine. This new theory argues that healing is at our fingertips: we can be healthy by doing Yoga on a regular basis.

    Supporters of medical treatment argue that medicine should be trusted since it is effective and scientifically proven. They say that there is no need for spiritual methods such as Yoga. These waste our time, something which is quite precious in our material world. There is medicine that can kill our pain, x­rays that show us our bones or MRI that scans our brain for tumors (肿瘤)

    We must admit that these methods are very effective in the examples that they provide. However, there are some “everyday complaints” such as back pains, headaches, insomnia, which are treated currently with medicine. When you have a headache, you take an Aspirin; when you cannot sleep, you take Xanax without thinking of the side effects of these. When you use these pills for a long period, you become addicted to them; you cannot sleep without them. We pay huge amounts of money and become addicted instead of getting better. How about a safer and more economical way of healing? When doing Yoga, you do not need anything except your energy so it is very economical. Its popularity has spread particularly throughout America and Western Europe. In quantum (量子) physics, energy is recognized as the fundamental substance (物质) which the universe consists of. Yoga depends on the energy within our bodies. It is a simple and effective way of restoring the energy flow. There are no side effects and it is scientifically explained.

    Opponents of alternative healing methods also claim that serious illnesses such as HIV/AIDS and cancer cannot be treated without drugs. They think so because these patients spend the rest of their lives in the hospital taking medicine. How can Yoga make these people healthy again? It is very unfortunate that these patients have to live in the hospital losing their hair because of chemotherapy (化疗), losing weight because of the side effects of the medicine they take. Actually, it is common knowledge that except for when the cancer is recognized at an early stage, drugs also cannot treat AIDS or cancer. Most of the medicines these patients use are to ease their pain and their sufferings. Instead of drugs which are expensive and have many side effects, you can use your energy to overcome the hardships of life, find an emotional balance, leave the stress of everyday life and let go of the everyday worries. We should definitely start learning Yoga and avoid illnesses before it is too late.

    Title: Health and Healing at Your Fingertips

    1.______to a new theory

    A new theory argues that doing Yoga 2.______ can keep people healthy while medicine might do 3.________ to people’s health.

    Support of medical treatment

    People should 4.______ medicine as it is very useful for killing pain.

    Medicine is effective and scientifically proven while Yoga is a kind of spiritual method and doing Yoga is only a 5.______ of time.

    Illnesses 6.______ HIV/AIDS and cancer can only be treated with drugs.

    Support of Yoga

    Doing Yoga is safer and not as 7.______ as taking medicine.

    Most of the medicines that patients with some 8.______ diseases use are to ease their pain and their sufferings but can not cure them.

    Yoga has no side effects and also there is a 9.______ explanation. It can restore the energy flow in people’s bodies, which can 10.________ our emotions, control thoughts,  overcome the hardships of life, leave the stress of everyday life and let go of the everyday worries.

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:0 入库时间:2016-12-21
    来源: 江苏省溧水高级中学2017届高三暑期开学考试英语试题解析(解析版)Word版含解斩.doc

    If You Get In, Make College Count

    As tuition costs rise, with post-undergraduate (本科毕业后) jobs difficult to find, is higher education worth the cost?

    Here is an unfortunate truth: For far too many incoming freshmen, collegeany collegeis not worth it. Year after year, students fail to get the full value of their tuition.

    Many critics blame this cost/value problem on the universities, though each critic might point to a different reason: teachers always think of difficult research, the high costs of athletics, or the popularity of majors that are supposedly not suited to the new job market, to name some of their favorites.

    But these are symptoms and not the illness itself. In our experience, the source of the wasted university experience begins with the student. Too often, students make bad choices or, frankly, just not enough great choices.

    Too often we meet students who are so exhausted by the business of getting into college that they don’t work hard once they arriveone of the most common wastes of time and tuition. A poorly constructed transcript (成绩单) can be destructive to a student’s education. Failure to engage and build professional working relationships with professors in office hours (which may lead to continued study, internships and more) also hurts the student’s experience.

     Another mistake is failing to make use of the many support networks on today’s college campuses. It’s almost embarrassing how many good offerings are rolled into each tuition dollar, but most students don’t know they exist.

    Another common point of failure is filling the schedule with too many extracurricular activities as students once did in high school, rather than getting intensely involved in one or two at most. The same can be said of overburdened course loads.

    The final great failure we frequently see is the approach students (and their parents) take to selecting a major and accurately seeing its impact on a future career. University systems are not vocational schools. While critics nowadays complain about the attraction of useless majors – and some do exist – more frequently we see too many students pursue a course of study that is not their strength, simply because it seems to have obvious connections to a potential job after graduation.

    Rather than perform poorly in a “practical” major and be of little interest as a future job candidate, we say it is better to major in a subject where a student would do well and master the tools of communication and analysis. Students who choose a unique major should complement (使更具有吸引力) that with some well-chosen skill courses, internships and other co-curricular activities that help them with career opportunities after college.

    So, is college worth it? It can be. Studies show that college graduates have many advantages – material, social and emotional – that can lead to greater success later in life.

    To get the full value out of college, students must be as diligent and creative about getting out of college as they were about getting in. After all, the most beautiful, Olympic saltwater pool does you no good if you don’t know how to swim.

    Introduction

    Students in college are (71)   ▲    to get the full value of the constantly rising tuition. Critics hold that the universities are responsible for the problem, but actually it is students themselves that are to (72)   ▲   .

    Students’

    mistakes

    Students tend to stop working hard after (73)   ▲    to college.

    ● Students fail to take advantage of the (74)   ▲    that colleges provide.

    ●(75)   ▲   in too many extracurricular activities makes students overburdened with course loads

    Students can’t adopt a correct (76)   ▲    to select a major and accurately see its future potential.

    Author’s advice

    ● Take personal (77)   ▲    and strength into account.

    ● Learn the skills of communication and analysis.

    ● Choose some skill courses, internships and other co-curricular activities to     (78)   ▲    future career chances.

    ● Most importantly, diligence and creativity (79)   ▲   .

    (80)  ▲  

    Students, and only students themselves, can get the best out of college, as long as they learn the skills to swim in the beautiful pool of college.

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:3 入库时间:2016-11-29
    来源: 山西省忻州市第一中学2016-2017学年高一上学期新生摸底英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

       It is widely accepted that television is playing an important part in people's lives. But, there is a heated discussion as to whether television does good or harm.

    Television keeps one learning more about present events, allows one to follow the most recent developments in politics and science, and offers various programs which are both instructive and exciting. The most distant countries, the strangest customs and the most attractive scenes of nature are brought right into one's room or house.

    However, some people insist that television is bad rather than good. They argue that it has brought about many serious problems. The major one is its effects on young people. Children are now so used to getting their information and entertainment from television that their ability to read and write as well as physical ability has been greatly weakened. Even worse than that, vulgar( 庸俗的) advertisements and poor programs may develop their bad tastes, shape their view points badly towards human life to such a degree that their minds might be destroyed.In a word, television has both advantages and disadvantages. Whatever effects it has, one point is certain, television in itself is neither good nor bad. It is the use to which it is put that decides its value to society.

    66. What are people discussing nowadays? ___________________________________

    67. What are the advantages television has brought us ? (至少2) ___________________________________

    68. Why do some people think television is bad rather than good? ___________________________________

    69. It is the use to which it is put that decides its value to society. ___________________________________

    70. What's your opinion about television?    

      ___________________________________

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:1 入库时间:2016-11-27
    来源: 山东省德州市夏津双语中学2016-2017学年高一上学期第二次摸底考试英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

     In the past twenty years, riding bicycles has become more and more popular among people of all ages. 3 Bicycles have long played an important part in the liyes of American young people. But today an even greater number of adults cycle along roadsides and bicycle paths. These new riders are often trying to become fit or lose weight. They have found that bicycling is a pleasant way to stay healthy.

    This is certainly good for health. But it has also brought some problems. With all these added people on the road, bicycle safety has become a matter of real importance.

    Bicycle safety is mostly a matter of common sense. People should ride only on bicycle paths where they will not be badly hurt. There are also a number of rules that riders should follow, especially when riding on streets or highways. Bicyclists should never ride against the traffic,nor should they carry other people on their bicycles. They are also supposed to ride in single line on busy streets and to "walk bicycles across the busy intersections (交叉路口) .4.By following these rules, bicycle riders will not only stay healthy but also be safe.

    In one recent year, the National Safety Council reported that 34 thousand bicycle riders were hurt in highway accidents. In that same year, another six hundred riders were killed. Since the introduction of crash helmets (头盔) in 1980, the number of injuries (伤者) and deaths from bicycling accidents had gone down. Today, more and more riders realize the dangers of bicycling. They are wearing helmets and paying closer attention to cycling rules.

    1. How many rules should the riders follow? Give one example.

    _______________________________________________________________

    2. According to the National Safety Council's report, what's the total number of injuries and deaths in one recent year?

    ________________________________________________________________

    B. 将短文中划线部分译成汉语。

    3._______________________________________________________________

    4.________________________________________________________________

    C. 请给短文拟一个适当的英文标题。

    5.________________________________________

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:1 入库时间:2016-11-20
    来源: 江苏省徐州市第三十七中学2015-2016学年高一下学期期中考试英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

    Less is more. This is why we say: reduce things by half instead of doubling them, relax instead of stressing, and slow down instead of speeding up. Apply these principles in your everyday life. You will then find yourself well along on your journey to simplification.

    Separate Your Actions

    When you concentrate on one task, you find you have energy that you didn’t even know you had. Just imagine: you have to carry two heavy pigs over 100 yards. If you carry two, it will take forever. But if you tie one pig in a place, pick up the other, gather all your strength and make a dash for the finish line, pause for a moment, run back and get the other one, and carry the second pig to the finish line, then you can be sure of success.

    Say “No” Firmly

    If you have the feeling that 24 hours per day are not enough for all the things you need to do, then it’s not because the day has too few hours, but because you have too many activities. The solution is equally simple: say no to accept so much work in your private life or your working life.

    Allow Yourself to Be Weak

    “I can deal with stress” is regarded as a positive statement in the world of work. People who can deal with stress are given more and more to --- until one day they break.

    Pay careful attention to the signs that tell you that you are under more stress than you can deal with. If you become ill, or your work efficiency decreases, change your life goals. Say quite openly, “I can’t manage that.”

    Stop Expecting Everything to Be Perfect

    “If only I were slimmer, more beautiful, richer, more clever, then I would be happier.” This is a dream that makes a lot of people ill, and unhappy. Life is imperfect. Only those who accept this reality can lead a really full life.

    Of course there are activities in which errors are dangerous: driving a car; crossing the road. But life doesn’t entirely have these things. In among them there is possibility that you may make small and large mistakes.

    Escape Now and Then

    Successful people all have their own places where they can be left alone in order to work. Find out which places improve your creativity. For me it’s the train. When I know that I’m going to be traveling for four hours without phone calls and people knocking on my door, I find my mind is free and I can read or write articles.


    How to    66    your life

    Theme

    Less is more, which helps you    67    a simpler life.

       68  

    to apply

    Concentrate on one task, and you will find you are more    69    than you know and achieve    70    more easily.

       71    to accept too much work in your life.

    Change life goals if you are under more stress than you can  72   .

       73    yourself to make mistakes since life is not perfect.   74   , you will be unhappy.

    Find out where you can be    75    to improve your creativity.

    题型:未分类  知识点:任务型阅读
  • 难度: 使用次数:2 入库时间:2016-11-20
    来源: 江苏省兴化中学2015-2016学年高一下学期英语限时训练(4.14) Word版含答案.doc

    How do you feel about your body? Do you love your body? Some people, especially women, are unhappy with some part of their bodies. They spend a lot of time criticizing their bodies. My stomach is big! My hips are too wide! I simply hate my body!

    Some people not only share these thoughts with themselves, but share them with anyone who will listen. When you speak negatively about yourself and your body, you instill (灌输) negative thoughts that take away your confidence and self-worth. These thoughts can have a great impact on your goals, how you treat yourself, and how you feel about your body and yourself. Plus, you also open the door for others to speak negatively about you. So you not only have to fight with how you feel about yourself, but how others feel about you, as well.

    Therefore, the next time those negative thoughts and comments come, replace them with those positive thoughts! For example, instead of saying my stomach is big, try saying something positive like, “I wish my stomach was flatter but I have some shapely legs”.

    If you’re still having a hard time to give your body love and appreciation it needs, then consider how much work your body puts in for you. You may hate your arms but they can give the tightest hugs to your children. The next time you talk negatively about your legs, think about those who don’t have legs at all. An attitude of gratitude is so important!

    Start your morning by looking in the mirror and telling yourself how beautiful you are. From your head to your toes and every part of it, you are beautiful. Today is the day when you accept, appreciate and love your body — you only get one!

    Problem

    Some people tend to 1.  ▲   their own bodies.

    2.  ▲   

    ● 3.  ▲   in loss of confidence and self-worth

    ● Affecting your goals, the way you treat yourself, and your 4.  ▲   about your body and yourself

    ● Causing others to 5.  ▲   negatively of you

    6.  ▲   

    ● Trying to think of the 7.  ▲   parts of your body when negative thoughts come

    ● Keeping telling yourself the important 8.  ▲   your body plays in your life

    ● Learning to be 9.  ▲  , you have something that others possibly don’t have

    ● Appreciating your 10.  ▲   in the mirror every morning

    Summary

    You should accept, appreciate and love your body every day because you only get one!

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  • 难度: 使用次数:2 入库时间:2016-11-18
    来源: 江苏省泰州中学2017届高三上学期摸底考试英语试题 Word版含答案.doc

       A great many parents send their children to pre-school---educational programs for children under the age of five. It has been said that his is the time period when the brain does over fifty percent of its growing. This could mean that the learning process should be introduced during these years.

    However, the views that different societies hold regarding the purpose of early childhood education are not same. Whereas Chinese parents tend to see preschools primarily as a way of giving children a good start academically, parents in the United States regard the primary purpose of preschools as making children more independent and self-reliant.

    Preschools can operate under a guiding philosophy of play-based or academic learning. Play-based programs are guided by the central belief that children learn best through play. Play is thought to build children’s interest and love of learning. Academic programs emphasize reading, math and science, and use structured, teacher-directed activities to promote foundational skills in these areas. In the United States, the best-known program designed to promote future academic success is Head Start. The program, which stresses parental involvement, was designed to serve the “whole child”, including children’s physical health, self-confidence, social responsibility, and social and emotional development.

    A recent evaluation suggests that preschoolers who participate in Head Start are less likely to repeat grades, and more likely to complete school in future. Furthermore, graduates of Head Start programs show higher academic performance at the end of high school, although the gains are modest. In addition, results from other types of preschool readiness programs indicate that for every dollar spent on the program, taxpayers saved seven dollars by the time the graduates reached the age of 27.

    Not everyone agrees that programs that seek to enhance academic skills during the preschool years are a good thing. In fact, according to developmental psychologist David Elkind, United States society tends to push children so rapidly that they begin to feel stress and pressure at a young age. Elkind argues that academic success is largely dependent upon factors such as inherited abilities and a child’s rate of maturation, which parents can do nothing about. Consequently, children of a particular age cannot be expected to master educational material without taking into account their current level of cognitive(认知的) development. In short, children require development appropriate educational practice, which is education that is based on both typical development and the unique characteristics of a given child.

    Early Childhood Education

    Reasons for attending preschools

    •The (71)      of the brain matures under the age of five.

    •Parents’ expectations of preschools (72)      greatly.

    Functions of preschools

    •Some programs (73)       on play activities while others on academic activities.

    •Parents are (74)        in some preschool programs.

    (75)      of attending preschools

    •Graduates are more (76)       to go to school.

    •Graduates may achieve higher grades at high school.

    •It can be  (77)       for households in the long term.

    (78)       about preschools

    •Children feel pressured at a young age.

    •Factors determining academic success are beyond parents’ (79)      .

    •Early childhood education must be (80)       with children’s development and characteristics.

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