English is the most widely used language in the history of our planet. One in every seven human beings can speak it. More than half of the world’s books and three quarters of international mail are in English. Of all languages, English has the largest vocabulary — perhaps as many as two million words.
However, let’s face it: English is a crazy language. There is no egg in an eggplant, neither pine nor apple in a pineapple and no ham in a hamburger. Sweet-meats are candy, while sweetbreads, which aren’t sweet, are meat.
We take English for granted. But when we explore its paradoxes (探讨它的矛盾), we find that quicksand can work slowly, boxing rings are square, public bathrooms have no baths in them.
And why is it that a writer writes, but fingers don’t fing, grocers don’t groce, and hammers don’t ham? If the plural of tooth is teeth, shouldn’t the plural of booth be beeth? One goose, two geese — so one moose, two meese?
How can a slim chance and a fat chance be the same, while a wise man and a wise guy are opposites? How can overlook and oversee be opposites, while quite a lot and quite a few are alike? How can the weather be hot as hell one day and cold as hell the next?
English was invented by people, not computers, and it reflects (反映) the creativity of human beings. That’s why, when stars are out, they are visible (能看见的); but when the lights are out, they are invisible. And why, when I wind up my watch, I start it; but when I wind up this essay, I end it.
47. According to the passage ______.
A. sweet-meats and sweetbreads are different things
B. there should be egg in an eggplant
C. pineapples are the apples on the pine tree
D. boxing rings should be round
48. Which of the following is the correct plural?
A. Beeth. B. Tooth. C. Meese. D. Geese.
49. Which of the following includes two items which have the similar meaning?
A. A wise man and a wise guy. B. Overlook and oversee.
C. Quite a lot and quite a few. D. Hot as hell and cold as hell.
50. The underlined words “wind up” in the last paragraph probably mean “______”.
A. blow B. finish C. get hurt D. roll up
TIME is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City. It was created in 1923 by Briton Hadden and Henry Luce, making it the first weekly news magazine in the US. Hadden was considered carefree, liked to tease Luce and saw TIME as important but also fun. That accounted for its heavy coverage of celebrities(including politicians), the entertainment industry, and pop culture—criticized as too light for serious news.
It tells the news through people, and for many decades, the magazine’s cover depicted a single person. On Hadden’s death in 1929, Luce became the most important man at TIME and a major figure in the history of 20th-century media.
TIME is also known for its signature red border, first introduced in 1927. It has only changed four times since then. The issue released shortly after the September 11 attacks on the United States featured a black border to symbolize mourning. However, this edition was a special “extra” edition published quickly for the breaking news of the event; the next regularly scheduled issue contained the red border. Additionally, the April 28, 2008 Earth Day issue, dedicated to environmental issues, contained a green border. The next change in border was in the September 19, 2011 issue, commemorating the 10th anniversary of the September 11 attacks with a metallic silver border. The most recent change(again with a silver border) was in the December 31, 2012 issue, noting Barack Obama’s selection as Man of the Year.
TIME has a division magazine, TIME FOR KIDS(TFK), which is especially published for children and is mainly distributed in classrooms. TFK contains some national news, a “Cartoon of the Week”, and a variety of articles concerning popular culture that the younger U.S. citizens are interested in. All the stories in TFK are written by young reporters.
In some advertising campaigns, the magazine has suggested that the letters TIME stand for “The International Magazine of Events”.
33.Why did some people dislike TIME in the beginning?
A. It had kept its cover the same since the 1920s.
B. It didn’t have a serious tone for important events.
C. It didn’t report important events quickly enough.
D. Henry Luce was in charge of the magazine for too long.
34.Why did TIME change its red border for the first time?
A. To remember the 10th anniversary of an attack.
B. To remind readers to protect the environment.
C. To show great sadness about the deaths.
D. To call on readers to vote for Obama.
35.What do we know about TFK?
A. It has young reporters writing articles.
B. It has a division magazine called TIME.
C. It is designed for kids and teachers.
D. It mainly contains popular culture.
In 1880, fourteen-year-old Matthew Henson loved to hear sailors tell tales of their exciting lives at sea. The travel, the adventure, the danger, and the steady pay were all attracting young Henson. One day, he found a job as a cabin boy on a beautiful ship called the Katie Hinds. For the next five years, Henson sailed around the world. With the help of the ship’s captain and other members of the crew, Henson learned mathematics, navigation, history, geography, and many other subjects. By the time he left the Katie Hinds in 1885, Henson was well educated and had become an excellent seaman.
Unable to find work anywhere else, Henson took a job in a hat shop in Washington, D.C. One day in 1887, a man came in to buy a hat. The man, Robert Peary, asked the owner if he knew anyone with experience at sea. Peary would soon travel to South America for the U.S. government. He needed experienced men to accompany him. The shop owner knew about his young employee’s skills and experience on ocean journeys, so he introduced Peary to Henson.
Using his map-reading and sailing skills, Henson proved himself to be a worthy and smart seaman. Peary soon made Henson his assistant（助理）, and they became close friends. One day Peary told Henson about his real dream: to be the first man to stand on “the top of the world” at the North Pole. He asked Henson to help him make his dream come true. Over the next five years, the two explorers made two trips together to the Arctic. However, they were not able to reach the pole either time. The cold, wind, and ice were worse than either of them had ever imagined.
In 1908, Peary and Henson were ready to make their final attempt at reaching the North Pole. Both men were over forty years old. The years of hardship in the arctic cold had made them suffer a lot. This would be their last chance. With four Inuit（因纽特）guides, they made a mad rush straight across the ice toward the pole. Peary’s feet were injured and he had to be pulled on a dogsled. In April 1909, Henson’s instruments showed they were standing at the North Pole. Together Henson and Peary planted the American flag in the snow.
In later years, Robert Peary and Henson were greatly honored for their achievements. Today, the two friends and fellow explorers lie in heroes’ graves not far apart in the Arlington National Cemetery.
8. In paragraph1, the author shows how Henson became ________.
A. a wonderful seaman
B. an educated captain
C. a good shop assistant
D. a successful learner
9. Paragraph 2 mainly tells us ________.
A. why Matthew Henson went to the hat shop
B. how Matthew Henson met Robert Peary
C. why Matthew Henson stopped working on the Katie Hinds
D. how Robert Peary knew Matthew Henson had sea experience
10. The following statements are TRUE except ________.
A. Henson proved himself a better seaman than Peary
B. Peary wanted Henson to help him realize his dream
C. Before their final attempt, they made two trips together
D. After they died, they were highly respected by people
11. The story between Henson and Peary could best be compared to ________.
A. treasure hunters looking for fortunes
B. sailors seeking power over others
C. soldiers fighting for their freedom
D. fighters exploring an unknown land
One of my first memories as a child in the 1950s was a discussion I had with my brother in our tiny bedroom in the family house in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
We had heard in school about a planet called Pluto. It was the farthest, coldest, and darkest thing a child could imagine. We guessed how long it would take to die if we stood on the surface of such a frozen place wearing only the clothes we had on. We tried to figure out how much colder Pluto was than Antarctica, or than the coldest day we had ever experienced in Pennsylvania.
Pluto, which famously was downgraded from a “major planet” to a “dwarf planet”（矮星）in 2006, captured our imagination because it was a mystery that could complete our picture of what it was like at the most remote corners of our solar system
Pluto’s underdog discovery story is part of what makes it so attractive. Clyde Tombaugh was a Kansas farm boy who built telescopes out of spare auto parts, old farm equipment and self-ground lenses. As an assistant at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, Tombaugh's task was to search millions of stars for a moving point of light, a planet that the observatory’s founder thought existed beyond the orbit of Neptune. On February 18，1930，Tombaugh found it. Pluto was the first planet discovered by an American, and represented a moment of light in the midst of the Great Depression’s dark encroachment (入侵).
Pluto is much more than something that is not a planet. It’s a reminder that there are many worlds out there beyond our own and that the sky isn’t the limit at all. We don’t know what kinds of fantastic variations on a theme nature is capable of making until we get there to look.
32. Why did Pluto become famous in 2006 according to the passage?
A. Because it lost its major planet status.
B. Because it disappeared in the sky.
C. Because it was discovered by an American.
D. Because it was proved to be the coldest planet in the universe.
33. What can be a suitable title for the text?
A. An American Scientist: Clyde Tombaugh
B. Pluto was First Discovered by a Boy
C. Pluto’s Strange Romance
D. The Days I Spent with My Brother in Pennsylvania
34. What can we learn from the fourth paragraph?
A. Clyde Tombaugh discovered the darkness in the Great Depression.
B. Pluto was the only planet that was discovered by Clyde Tombaugh.
C. Clyde Tombaugh’s job was to build telescopes for Lowell Observatory.
D. Clyde Tombaugh’s telescopes used for searching stars were very simple.
35. What does the underlined sentence in the last paragraph most probably mean?
A. Pluto is no less than a planet in the solar system.
B. Pluto is much more than a planet in the solar system.
C. Pluto is more important than any other planet in the sky.
D. Pluto is not a planet in the solar system, but it is more than a planet.
Just 50 years ago Manx seemed to be on the point of disappearing. "If you spoke Manx in a pub on the island in the 1960s, it was considered provocative(挑衅的) and you were likely to find yourself in a fight," recalls Brian Stowell, a 76-year-old islander who has written a Manx-language novel, The Vampire Murders, and presents a radio show on Manx Radio spreading the language every Sunday.
The language itself is similar to the Gaelic tongues spoken in the island's neighbours, Ireland and Scotland. A century ago, "Moghrey mie" would have been commonly heard instead of good morning on the island.
"In the 1860s there were thousands of Manx people who couldn't spea k English," says Stowell. "But only a century later it was considered to be so backwards to speak the language that there were stories of Manx speakers getting stones thrown at them in the towns. "I learnt it myself from one of the last surviving native speakers back in the 1950s."
Recession(经济衰退 ) in the mid 19th Century forced many Manx residents to leave the island to seek work in England. And parents were not willing to pass the language down through the generations, with many believing that to have Manx as a first language would affect job opportunities overseas.
There was a fall in the language. By the early 1960s there were perhaps as few as 200 who spoke the tongue. The last native speaker, Ned Maddrell, died in 1974. Unesco(联合国教科文组织) pronounced the language died out in the 1990s.
Now there is even a Manx language primary school in which all subjects are taught in the language, with more than 60 pupils attending. Manx is also taught in other schools across the island.
9. What does “Moghrey mie” mean according to the passage?
A.All the best. B. Congratulations. C. Never mind. D. Good morning.
10. Many Manx people went to England to ______.
A. learn Manx B. teach English C. look for jobs D. attend college
11. What is the passage mainly about?
A. The Manx language. B. The life of Manx people
C. The Manx island. D. The Manx language school
Buckingham Palace is where the Queen lives. It is the Queen’s official and main royal London home.
Buckingham Palace was originally a splendid house built by the Duke(公爵) of Buckingham for his wife. George IV began changing it into a palace in 1826. It has been the official London home of Britain’s royal family since 1837. Buckingham Palace is also an office and used for the administrative work of the royal family.
When the Queen is at home you can see her royal flag (the Royal Standard) flying from the flag pole on top of Buckingham Palace.
The flag is divided into four equal parts. The first and fourth parts represent England and contain three gold lions waking on a red field; the second part represents Scotland and contains a red lion standing on a gold field; the third part represents Ireland and contains the gold coat of arms of Ireland on a blue field.
In flag protocol (礼仪), the Royal Standard which must only be flown from buildings where the Queen is present is supreme (至高无上的). It flies above the British Union Flag (the Union Jack ), and other British flags. It never flies at half mast.
The guards of the Palace wear red jackets and tall, furry hats. When the first guards come on duty, there is a ceremony called the Changing of the Guard. A familiar sight at Buckingham Palace is the Changing of the Guard ceremony that takes place in the open space in front of it each morning.
The Palace has around 750 rooms, including 19 state rooms, 52 royal and guest bedrooms, 78 bathrooms, 92 offices, a cinema and a swimming pool. It also has its own post office and police station. About 400 people work at the Palace, including servants, chefs, footmen, cleaners, gardeners, electricians, and so on. More than 50,000 people come to the Palace each year as guests to dinners, receptions and Royal Garden Parties.
32. For whom was the original Buckingham Palace built?
A. The Duke of Buckingham. B. George IV.
C. The Duke of Buckingham’s wife. D. George IV’s wife.
33. According to the text, the Royal Standard_________.
A. is flown at Buckingham Palace every morning
B. represents the four countries of the UK
C. flies at half mast only on a few occasions
D. flies higher than the British Union Flag
34. When can a visitor see the Changing of the Guard ceremony?
A. Every morning and evening. B. Every morning.
C. When the Queen’s flag is flying. D. When a flag is flying at the Palace.
35. What is the last paragraph about?
A. What you can see inside Buckingham Palace.
B. The royal parties at Buckingham Palace.
C. The Changing of the Guard at Buckingham Palace.
D. People living and working at Buckingham Palace.
It was in the Victorian Era(维多利亚时期) that the novel became the leading form of literature in English. Most writers were more concerned to meet the tastes of the middle class. The best known works of the period included the works of Charles Dickens and the Bronté sisters and others.
Charles Dickens came on the literary scene in the 1830s. Dickens wrote vividly about London life and the struggles of the poor. Most of his works were written in a very humorous style, which was popular with readers of all classes.
The Bronté sisters were English writers of the 1840s and 1850s. They began to write from early childhood. In 1846 they published the first book at their own expense as poets; however, their book attracted little attention, selling only two copies. Then the sisters turned to writing novels, each producing a novel in the following year.
An interest in rural matters and the changing social and economic situation of the countryside may be seen in the novels of Thomas Hardy and a number of others.
Literature for children developed as a single style. Some works became well－known, such as those of Lewis Carroll and Edward Lear. Adventure novels were written for adults but are now generally grouped in the list for children. Helen Beatrix Potter was an English author at the end of the Victorian Era, best known for her children's books, which featured animal characters. In her thirties, Potter published the highly successful children's book The Tale of Peter Rabbit in 1902.
24．What can we know about Charles Dickens from the text?
A. He described the struggles of the poor in London.
B. He showed an interest in rural matters in his writing.
C. He focused on changing social and economic situation of the countryside.
D. He published the highly successful children's book.
25．Which is TRUE about the Bronté sisters?
A. They were English writers of the 1830s.
B. They paid to have their first book published.
C. They began their writing from adulthood.
D. Their first book was successful.
26．The author states in the last paragraph that________．
A. society changed rapidly in the Victorian Era
B. Thomas Hardy was not as famous as Lewis Carroll
C. Edward Lear was famous for writing about animals
D. adventure novels were not written for children at first
27．This text is mainly about ________.
A. literature in the Victorian Era
B. writing styles in the Victorian Era
C. famous works in the Victorian Era
D. the importance of literature in the Victorian Era
A HALF - EMPTY BASKET
Once there was a poor farmer and his farm belonged to(属于) a rich man. One day he brought a basket of apples to the rich man’s house. On the doorsteps, he met two monkeys dressed like children. They jumped onto the basket to eat the apples and threw some on the ground. The farmer politely took off his hat and asked the monkeys to get off. They obeyed(服从) and the farmer went into the house. He asked to see the rich man. A servant took him to the room where the rich man was sitting.
"I have brought you the basket of apples you asked for," he said.
"But why have you brought a half-empty basket?" the rich man asked.
"I met your children outside, and they stole(偷) some of the apples.
24. Why did the farmer bring apples to the rich man? Because
A. he was poor B. he liked the rich man
C. his farm belonged to the rich man D. the rich man’s children liked apples
25. What did the monkeys do when the farmer was on the doorsteps?
A. They jumped and jumped. B. They played.
C. They ran away. D. They ate some of the apples.
26. The monkeys left the basket because
A. they had thrown apples on the ground
B. the farmer had politely asked them to get off
C. they were afraid of the hat
D. the farmer was angry wit h them
27. How did the rich man feel when he saw the basket? He felt _______.
A. pleased B. unhappy C. excited D. moved
Proudly reading my words, I glanced around the room, only to find my classmates bearing big smiles on their faces and tears in their eyes. Confused, I glanced toward my stone-faced teacher. Having no choice, I slowly raised the report I had slaved over, hoping to hide myself. “What could be causing everyone to act this way?”
Quickly, I flashed back to the day Miss Lancelot gave me the task. This was the first real talk I received in my new school. It seemed simple: go on the Internet and find information about a man named George Washington. Since my idea of history came from an ancient teacher in my home country, I had never heard of that name before. As I searched the name of this fellow, it became evident that there were two people bearing the same name who looked completely different! One invented hundreds of uses for peanuts, while the other led some sort of army across America. I stared at the screen, wondering which one my teacher meant. I called my grandfather for a golden piece of advice; flip (掷) a coin. Heads—the commander, and tails—the peanuts guy. Ah! Tails, my report would be about the great man who invented peanut butter, George Washington Carver.
Weeks later, standing before this unfriendly mass, I was totally lost. Oh well, I lowered the paper and sat down at my desk, burning to find out what I had done wrong. As a classmate began his report, it all became clear, “My report is on George Washington, the man who started the American Revolution.” The whole world became quite! How could I know that she meant that George Washington?
Obviously, my grade was awful. Heartbroken but fearless, I decided to turn this around. I talked to Miss Lancelot, but she insisted: No re-dos; no new grade. I felt that the punishment was not justified, and I believed I deserved a second chance. Consequently, I threw myself heartily into my work for the rest of the school year. Ten months later, that chance unfolded as I found myself sitting in the headmaster’s office with my grandfather, now having an entirely different conversation. I smiled and flashed back to the embarrassing moment at the beginning of the year as the headmaster informed me of my option to skip the sixth grade. Justice is sweet!
9. What did the author’s classmates think about his report?
A. interesting B. ridiculous. C. boring. D. puzzling.
10.Why was the author confused about the task?
A. He was unfamiliar with American history.
B. He followed the advice and flipped a coin.
C. He forgot his teacher’s instruction.
D. He was new at the school.
11.The underlined word “burning” in Para. 3 probably means _______.
A. annoyed B. ashamed C. ready D. eager
12.In the end, the author turned things around _______.
A. by redoing his task
B. through his own efforts
C. with the help of his grandfather
D. under the guidance of his headmaster
Elderly people are growing healthier, happier and more independent, say American scientists. The results of a 14-year study to be announced later this month reveal that the diseases associated with old age are affecting fewer and fewer people and when they do suffer a stroke (中风), it is much later in their life.
In the last 14 years, the National Long-term Care Survey has gathered data on the health and lifestyles of more than 20,000 men and women over 65. Researchers, now analyzing the results of data gathered in 1994, say arthritis, high blood pressure and circulation problems — the major medical complaints in this age group — are troubling a smaller proportion every year. And the data confirms that the rate at which these diseases are declining continues to increase. Other diseases of old age — dementia, strokes, arteriosclerosis and emphysema — are also troubling fewer and fewer people.
"It really raises the question of what should be considered normal ageing," says Kenneth Manton, a demographer (人口学家) from Duke University in North Carolina. He says the problems doctors accepted as normal in a 65-year-old in 1982 are often not appearing until people are 70 or 75.
Clearly, certain diseases are beating a retreat in the face of medical advances. But there may be other contributing factors. Improvements in childhood nutrition in the first quarter of the twentieth century, for example, gave today’s elderly people a better start in life than their former generations.
On the downside, an increase in some cancers and bronchitis may reflect changing smoking habits and poorer air quality, say the researchers. "These may be subtle influences," says Manton, "but our subjects have been exposed to worse and worse pollution for over 60 years. It’s not surprising we see some effect."
One interesting correlation Manton uncovered is that better-educated people are likely to live longer. For example, 65-year-old women with fewer than eight years of schooling are expected, on average, to live to 82. Those who continued their education live an extra seven years. Although some of this can be attributed to a higher income, Manton believes it is mainly because educated people seek more medical attention.
The survey also assessed how independent people over 65 were, and again found a striking trend. Almost 80% of those in the 1994 survey could complete everyday activities ranging from eating and dressing unaided to complex tasks such as cooking and managing their finances. That represents a significant drop in the number of disabled old people in the population. According to Manton, slowing the trend has saved the United States government’s medicare system more than $200 billion, suggesting that the ageing of America’s population may prove less of a financial burden than expected.
But independence can have drawbacks. Scientists found that elderly people who felt emotionally isolated maintained higher levels of stress hormones even when asleep. The research suggests that older people live best when they feel independent but know they can get help when they need it.
50．What is the main topic of this passage?
A.The common health problems of elderly people in the US.
B.A healthier, happier and more independent ageing population in the US.
C.The influence of medical advances on elderly people’s health in the US.
D.The relationship between good education and the length of time one lives.
51．What makes demographers begin to wonder about the standard of normal ageing?
A.People’s growing healthier.
B.People’s living longer.
C.The abnormally increasing population.
D.More deadly diseases’ being curable.
52．Which of the following is NOT considered as a contributor to elderly people getting healthier?
A.Medical improvement. B.Good childhood nutrition.
C.Change of air quality. D.Better education.
53．What is the main reason for better-educated people to live longer according to Manton?
A.They maintain a lower level of stress.
B.They have learnt more about medical care.
C.They have a higher income to support themselves.
D.They pay much more attention to their physical health.
54．What can be inferred from the last two paragraphs?
A.80% of elderly people in the US could handle everyday activities independently.
B.A large number of disabled old people used to be a financial burden to the US.
C.Elderly people who live independently have a more positive state of mind.
D.It is not advised for elderly people to live independently.
People at risk of a heart attack or stroke could benefit from blood-pressure-lowering drugs even if their blood pressure is considered in the normal, healthy range. If such drugs were offered to people with cardiac(心脏的) risks regardless of their blood pressure at the beginning of treatment it could save millions of lives, researchers in Oxford University found.
For the study, the team analyzed more than 120 medical trials including around 600,000 people conducted over two decades, saying their findings are a call for an urgent review of existing blood pressure treatment guidelines."Our findings clearly show that treating blood pressure to a lower level could greatly reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, if widely conducted,"said study lead author Kazem Rahimi.
High blood pressure has long been identified as a factor in higher risks of heart disease and strokes, and makes more than a billion people around the globe intorment— including one out of three U.S. adults.
Blood pressure is recorded in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) as two numbers in a ratio:"systolic"pressure inside the arteries(动脉)when the heart beats as the top number, and"diastolic(舒张的)"pressure between heartbeats, as the heart rests and is refilled with blood."Normal"blood pressure is considered at 120/80 or below, and is considered"high"at 140/90 or above, according to the American Heart Association. The researchers said their study showed that for every reduction in systolic pressure of 10 mmHg, the risk of heart attacks was reduced by a fifth and that of a stroke around a quarter.
Some experts said they thought the study’s findings were important butdid offer some warnings."One important warning is that not everyone will be able to tolerate having their blood pressure reduced to low levels, and there is a need to balance possible drug side effects and likely benefits,"Smeeth said.
32．What do the findings indicate?
A.Normal blood pressure doesn’t mean a healthy body.
B.The existing blood pressure treatment is useless.
C.High blood pressure is the first health killer.
D.High blood pressure causes many diseases.
33．What does the underlined word"torment"(in Paragraph 3) mean?
A.Tolerance. B.Debt. C.Pain. D.Despair.
34．What is the function of Paragraph 4?
A.To teach how to measure blood pressure.
B.To compare high and normal blood pressure.
C.To explain the factor in heart attacks and strokes.
D.To show some diseases are related to blood pressure.
35．What can be inferred from Smeeth’s words?
A.He thought less of the findings.
B.Reducing blood pressure isn’t safe for everyone.
C.Most experts disagree with the findings.
D.Drug side effects are bigger than benefits.
The first living creatures to travel in space were the dogs of the Soviet Unions space program. Beginning in 1951 dogs flew aboard sub-orbital flights to the height of 63 miles and higher. They helped to test the equipment that would later be used by humans. The first pair of dogs to fly, on July 22. 1951, were named Tsygan and Dezik.
Space dogs would make history on November 3rd 1957. On this date, just one month after the historic launch of the world’s first artificial satellite, Sputnik, the Soviet Union shocked the world again by launching Sputnik 2. This satellite contained the first living creature to travel in space, a dog named Laika. Laika was to have orbited for a week or more until her food and oxygen ran out. In fact, Laika lasted only hours in orbit before over heating in her capsule(太空舱) took her life.
That next step, occurred in August 1960, when the dogs Belka and Strelka made 18 orbits of earth and returned alive. Like Laika before them, they became distinguished, featured in newspapers and magazines around the world.
Six more orbital dog flights over the next eight months further tested the equipment necessary for humans to follow in the dogs’ footsteps. That historic event happened on April 12, 1961, when Yuri Gagarin became the human to travel in space.
The role of the space dogs had proven important in advancing the exploration of space. But, they would make one final flight. In 1966, traveling aboard the Cosmos 110 satellite, the dogs Ugolek and Veterok spent 22 days in orbit. Once again dogs led the way. Humans would not achieve a space flight that long for eight more years, in Skylab 2.
28. From the passage we may infer that _____________.
A. Laika couldn’t return to the earth alive
B. Tsygan and Dezik became world famous after they returned to the earth safely
C. Laike was not as famous as Belka and Strelka
D. man travel earlier in space than dogs
29. The underlined word “distinguished” in paragraph 3 probably means________.
A. crazy B. terrified C. anxious D. famous
30. According to the passage, space dogs ___________.
A. played an important part in space exploration
B. were used to walked on the surface of planets instead of man
C. did more research work than man when traveling in space
D. could stay longer in space than man
In earliest times, men considered lightning to be one of the great mysteries of nature.
Some ancient people believed that lightning and thunder were the weapons of the gods.
In reality, lightning is a flow of electricity formed high above the earth. A single flash of lightning 1.6 kilometres long has enough electricity to light one million light bulbs (灯泡).
The American scientist and statesman, Benjamin Franklin, was the first to show the connection between electricity and lightning in 1752. In the same year he also built the first lightning rod (避雷针). This device protects buildings from being damaged by lightning.
Modern science has discovered that one stroke of lightning has a voltage (电压) of more than 15 million volts (伏特). A flash of lightning between a cloud and the earth may be as long as 13 kilometers, and travel at a speed of 30 million meters per second.
Scientists judge that there are about 2,000 million flashes of lightning per year. Lightning hits the Empire State Building in New York City 30 to 48 times a year. In the United States alone it kills an average of one person every day.
The safest place to be in case of an electrical storm is in a closed car. Outside, one should go to low ground and not get under trees. Also, one should stay out of water and away from metal fences. Inside a house, people should avoid open doorways and windows and not touch wires or metal things.
With lightning, it is better to be safe than sorry?
9. People once thought lightning came from ________.
A. the sky B. the gods C. the earth D. nature
10.Lightning can travel ________.
A. as quickly as water B. not so quickly as electricity
C. at very low speed D. at very high speed
11.Which of the following is NOT true?
A. In the U.S about one person per day dies from lightning.
B. The Empire State Building frequently gets hit by lightning.
C. Swimming during a thunder storm is a good idea.
D. A closed car is the best place to be during an electrical storm.
12. According to the passage what do you think all buildings need?
A. Metal fences. B. Electricity. C. lightning rods. D. Machines.
As I grew older, my dad and I grew further apart. We always had totally different opinions. He thought that college was a waste of time, but for me it was important to finish college. He wanted me to work my way to the top as he had done in his field, but I wanted a different life. There was a time when we did not talk with each other.
A few months ago, I heard that my 84-year-old dad was in poor health. When he called and asked whether I could move from Colorado back to Tennessee to help him, I knew he was seriously ill. I am his only child and so it was time to meet my father’s requirement.
Two weeks after moving back, we bought a boat and started fishing again. Fishing was one of the few things that we did while I was young and that we both enjoyed. It is strange but true that as we are fishing we are able to put things that have kept us apart for so many years behind us. We are able to talk about things that we have never talked about before. Fishing has been healing the old wounds that have kept us apart.
It is not important how many fish we catch. It is about enjoying the relationship that we have not had for years. I’m 62 and he is 84. When we are on the lake fishing, it is like enjoying life. It is far better to find a way to put the unhappy past behind. I am so lucky to spend the happy time with my father in his last years. Now my heart is filled with love. A smile always graces my lips.
21.The author and his father became further apart because______________.
A.they lived very far from each other B.they seldom saw each other
C.they only communicated by phone D.they had different views on things
22.For the author, fishing with his old father_____________.
A.helps cure his father’s disease B.makes him realize the importance of relaxation
C.is a good way to get close to nature D.provides a chance for them to communicate
23.Which of the following can be the best title for the text?
A.Fishing Brings Us Together B.Forgiving I s Difficult
C.Memories of Old Days D.My Beloved Father
Hundreds of years ago, news was carried from place to place by people on foot or by horse. It took days, weeks and sometimes months for people to receive news. Now it is possible to send words and pictures around the world in seconds. Billions of people learn about news stories of their own country and all over the world every day, either by watching TV or reading newspapers.
Newspapers have been an important part of everyday life since the 18th century. Many countries have hundreds of different newspapers. How do newspaper editors decide which news stories to print? Why do they print some stories and not others? What makes a good newspaper story?
Firstly, it is important to report new stories. TV stations can report news much faster than newspapers. Yet, newspapers give more about the same story. They may also look at the story in another way, or they may print completely different stories to those on TV.
Secondly, a news story has to be interesting and unusual. People don't want to read stories about everyday life as a result, many stories are about some kind of danger and seem to be "bad" news. For example, newspapers never print stories about planes landing safely, instead they print stories about plane accidents.
Another factor (因素) is also very important in many news stories. Many people are interested in news in foreign countries, but more prefer to read stories about people, places and events in their own country. So the stories on the front page in Chinese newspapers are usually very different from the ones in British, French and American newspapers.
25. According to the passage, how do people learn about news stories in the world now?
A. They carry news stories and tell others from place to place on foot or by horse.
B. They tell each other what they have seen with their eyes.
C. They watch TV or read newspapers.
D. They listen to the radio every day.
26. The difference between newspaper stories and TV news reports is that _____.
A. people can learn more about the same news story from a newspaper
B. people can read the news story more quickly in a newspaper
C. people can read news stories in other countries
D. people can read news stories about their own country
27. To make a good newspaper story, how many factors does the passage talk about?
A. Two. B. Three. C. Five. D. Six.
28. According to the passage, which of the following can you most possibly watch on TV?
A. You often play football with your friends after school.
B. Your teacher has got a cold.
C. A tiger in the city zoo has run out and hasn't been caught.
D. The bike in the front of your house is lost.
The latest study by the University of Florida has found that eating from smaller, less beautiful, and even paper plates will help prevent overeating. Eating with a fork instead of a spoon can help you lose weight, the researchers say. Much to their surprise, they find that putting mirrors in the dining room will also help reduce weight.
The researchers asked 185 college students to choose a chocolate cake or a fruit salad, and evaluated the taste. Those who ate in a room with a mirror scored the taste of junk food much lower than those in a room without a mirror. But the taste of fruit salad remained the same in any case.
Lead scientist, Dr. Ata Jami, says that a glance in the mirror tells people more than just about their physical appearance. It enables them to view themselves objectively (客观地) and helps them to judge themselves and their behavior in the same way that they judge other people.
The mirrors were found to push people to compare and match their own behavior with accepted social standards. The researchers believe it proves that people don’t want to look in the mirror when they feel they are following the social standards. When they look in the mirror with mouths full of junk food, feelings of discomfort and failure can be increased. Therefore, the presence of the mirror lowers the taste of unhealthy food.
However, researchers say this is only the case if people select the food they are eating, because they are responsible for that choice. The researchers suggest that mirrors be placed in dining rooms and other eating spaces, so that people will start eating more healthily.
32. Researchers are amazed to find that ______.
A. paper plates make food look nicer
B. people using a fork will eat more
C. mirrors can help people lose weight
D. people will eat more in front of a mirror
33. What can be inferred from the study?
A. Some teenagers got involved in it.
B. People were required to eat with a spoon.
C. People preferred a chocolate cake to a fruit salad.
D. The mirror may not affect the taste of healthy food.
34. According to Dr. Ata Jami, the mirror ______.
A. makes people judge others correctly
B. makes people well judge themselves
C. is a necessary part of people’s daily life
D. can only show the appearance of a person
35. How does the mirror affect the taste of junk food?
A. By making people hungry.
B. By showing the social standards.
C. By attracting people to healthy food.
D. By causing a feeling of discomfort.
In ancient Japan, if you saved someone’s life, they would make it their duty to spend the rest of their life serving you. Nowadays, if you rescue someone’s story, he or she will feel the same kind of gratitude (感激).
It happens all the time. Someone in a group is telling a story and, just before their big point, BOOM! There’s an interruption. Someone new joins the group, a waiter with a plate of biscuits comes over, or a baby starts crying. Suddenly everyone’s attention turns to the new arrival, the food on the plate, or the “charming” little child. Nobody is aware of the interruption — except the speaker. They forget all about the fact that the speaker hasn’t made his or her point.
Or you’re all sitting around the living room and someone is telling a joke. Suddenly, just before their big punch line (妙语), little Johnny drops a dish or the phone rings. After the crash, everyone talks about little Johnny’s carelessness. After the call, the subject turns to the upcoming marriage or medical operation of the caller. Nobody remembers the great punch line got unfinished — except the joke teller. When it’s you entertaining everyone at a restaurant, have you ever noticed how you can almost set your clock by the waiter coming to take everyone’s order just before your funny punch line?
Most joke and story tellers are too shy to say, after the interruption, “Now, as I was saying …” Instead, they’ll spend the rest of the evening feeling bad they didn’t get to finish. Here’s where you come in. Rescue them with the technique I call “Lend a Helping Tongue.”
Watch the gratitude in the storyteller’s eyes as he stabilizes where his story sunk and he sails off again toward the center of attention. His expression and the appreciation of your consideration by the rest of the group are often reward enough. You are even more fortunate if you can rescue the story of someone who can hire you, promote you, buy from you, or otherwise lift your life. Big winners have excellent memories. When you do them subtle favors like Lend a Helping Tongue, they find a way to pay you back.
28. Very often, a storyteller cannot make his point because _________.
A. people are more interested in food than his story
B. many guests bring their babies to the party
C. he is interrupted by something unexpected
D. his story is easily forgotten by the listeners
29. From Paragraph 3, we know that when someone is telling a joke, _________.
A. something bad will surely happen just before their punch line
B. listeners’ attention is often drawn to something else
C. the only person really interested in the joke is the joke teller
D. the waiter knows when to take everyone’s order
30. How can we help the joke and story tellers when they are interrupted?
A. By giving them a chance to finish.
B. By comforting them to make them happy.
C. By going on telling the story for them.
D. By teaching them some useful techniques.
31. What is the text mainly about?
A. People should learn how to take turns in a conversation.
B. We can win someone’s heart by getting him back to his story.
C. Telling jokes will make you the center of attention.
D. It is impolite to cut in on someone’s talk.
I’ve loved my mother’s desk since I was just tall enough to sit above the top of it. Mother sat writing letters. Standing by her chair, looking at the ink bottle, pens, and white paper, I decided that the act of writing must be a most wonderful thing in the world.
Years later, during her final illness, Mother kept different things for my sister and brother. “But the desk,” she said again, “is for Elizabeth.”
I never saw her angry, never saw her cry. I knew she loved me; she showed in action. But as a young girl. I wanted to have heart-to-heart talks between mother and daughter.
They never happened. And a gulf opened between us. I was “too emotional (易动感情的)”. But she lived “on the surface (表面)”.
As years passed and I had my own family. I loved my mother and thanked her for our happy family. I wrote to her in careful words and asked her to let me know in any way she chose that she did forgive me.
My hope turned to disappointment, then little interest and, finally, peace – it seemed that nothing happened. I couldn’t be sure that the letter had even got to Mother. I only knew that I had written it, and I could stop trying to make her into someone she was not.
But the present of her desk told me, as she’d never been able to, that she was pleased that writing was my chosen work. I cleaned the desk carefully and found some papers inside – a photo of my father and a one-paper letter, folded and refolded many times. It was my letter.
“In any way you choose, Mother, you always chose the act that speaks louder than words.”
5．The writer began to love her mother’s desk________.
A．after Mother died B．before she became a writer
C．when she was a child D．when Mother gave it to her
6．The passage shows that_________.
A．Mother was cold on the surface but kind in her heart to her daughter
B．Mother was too serious about her daughter in words
C．Mother wrote to her daughter in careful words
D．Mother wrote to her daughter in careless words
7．The underlined word “gulf” in the passage means_______.
A．deep understanding between the old and the young
B．different ideas between mother and daughter
C．free talks between mother and daughter
D．part of the sea going far in land
8．What’s best title of the passage?
A．My letter to Mother B．Mother and children
C．My Mother’s Desk D．Talks between Mother and me
One evening in February 2007, a student named Paula Ceely brought her car to a stop on a remote road in Wales. She got out to open a metal gate that blocked her path .That’s when she heard the whistle sounded by the driver of a train. Her Renault Clio was parked across a railway line. Seconds later, she watched the train drag her car almost a kilometre down the railway tracks.
Ceely’s near miss made the news because she blamed it on the GPS (导航仪). She had never driven the route before. It was dark and raining heavily. Ceely was relying on her GPS, but it made no mention of the crossing. “I put my complete trust in the device and it led me right into the path of a speeding train,” she told the BBC.
Who is to blame here? Rick Stevenson, who tells Ceely’s story in his book When Machines Fail Us, points the finger at the limitations of technology. We put our faith in digital devices, he says, but our digital helpers are too often not up to the job. They are filled with small problems. And it’s not just GPS devices: Stevenson takes us on a tour of digital disasters involving everything from mobile phones to wireless keyboards.
The problem with his argument in the book is that it’s not clear why he only focuses on digital technology, while there may be a number of other possible causes. A map-maker might have left the crossing off a paper map. Maybe we should blame Ceely for not paying attention. Perhaps the railway authorities are at fault for poor singalling system. Or maybe someone has studied the relative dangers and worked out that there really is something specific wrong with the GPS equipment. But Stevenson doesn’t say.
It’s a problem that runs through the book. In a section on cars, Stevenson gives an account of the advanced techniques that criminals use to defeat computer-based locking systems for cars. He offers two independent sets of figures on car theft; both show a small rise in some parts of the country. He says that once again not all new locks have proved reliable. Perhaps, but maybe it’s also due to the shortage of policemen on the streets. Or changing social circumstances. Or some combination of these factors.
The game between humans and their smart devices is amusing and complex. It is shaped by economics and psychology and the cultures we live in. Somewhere in the mix of those forces there may be a way for a wiser use of technology.
If there is such a way, it should involve more than just an awareness of the shortcomings of our machines. After all, we have lived with them for thousands of years. They have probably been fooling us for just as long.
4. What did Paula Ceely think was the cause of her accident？
A. She was not familiar with the road.
B. It was dark and raining heavily then.
C. The railway workers failed to give the signal.
D. Her GPS device didn’t tell her about the crossing.
5. The phrase “near miss” (Paragraph 2) can best be replaced by______.
A. close hit B. heavy loss C. narrow escape D. big mistake
6. Which of the following would Rick Stevenson most probably agree with?
A. Modern technology is what we can’t live without.
B. Digital technology often falls short of our expectation.
C. Digital devices are more reliable than they used to be.
D. GPS error is not the only cause for Ceely’s accident.
Hunderds of years ago, life was much harder thn it is today. People didn’t have modern machines. There was no modern medicine, either.
Life today has brought new problems. One of the biggest is pollution. Water pollution has made our rivers and lakes dirty. It kills our fish and pollutes our drinking water. Noise pollution makes us talk louder and become angry more easily. Air pollution is the most serious kind of pollution. It’s bad to all living things in the world.
Cars, planes and factories all pollute our air every day. Sometimes the polluted air is so thick that it is like a quilt over a city. This kind of quilt is called smog.
Many countries are making rules to flight pollution. Factories must now clean their water before it is thrown away, and they mustn’t blow dirty smoke into the air.
We need to do many other things. We can put waste things in the dustbin and do not throw them on the ground, there will be less pollution.
Rules are not enough. Every person must help to fight pollution.
19. What is the biggest problem in today’s life?
A. Water pollution B. Air pollution C. Noise D. Pollution
20. The most serious kind of pollution is ______.
A. noise pollution B. air pollution C. water pollution D. A, B and C
21. Factories must clean their water ______.
A. before they are thrown away B. when they are thrown away
C. after it is thrown away D. before it is thrown away